Issues related to new residents have become increasingly important in Taiwanese society. The majority of early research has focused on immigration due to international marriage, whereas current research focuses on language education for pupils as well as their diversity. This paper discusses developments in new-resident language education in the context of compulsory education in Taiwan. According to a literature review, studies on new-resident language education have shifted their focus from adults to pupils. In this study, a micro-macro methodological dichotomy was used to analyze new-resident language education policy and planning in Taiwan’s 108 Curriculum. The policy’s implications for language ideology, language attitude, and language identity were elucidated. Among the various challenges for policy implementation, teacher training is the most critical aspect. Three major groups of people were identified in present-day new-resident language education in the compulsory education context: regular pupils, transnational students, and second-generation new residents who grew up in Taiwan. In terms of future studies, longitudinal research on language education policy, language acquisition planning research, and interdisciplinary research involving the fields of education and linguistics should be conducted.