"With the increasing public demands for safety, effectiveness and responsibility in health care, clinical competency evaluation of medical specialists is becoming an important issue in medical education. Residency training, assessment and certification are essentials to ensure health care quality and competency of medical specialists. Since CBME milestone program has been introduced to residency training in anesthesiology and certification including written tests as the major part and oral tests in our country, correctly evaluating ability of trainees becomes a hot topic in certification of medical specialists. Accordingly, this study analyzed the results of past certification examinations (2007~2018) and assessments of the milestone program for residency training (2017~2018) in anesthesiology in a medical center. It is noted that (1) the examinees performed well in written tests for certification; (2) residents’ ability was consistent with training purposes; (3) there were differences in item performances in the milestone program for residency training; (4) quantitative and qualitative feedbacks could be provided from the evaluation of milestone program. We also suggest that (1) The construction of multiple and reliable evaluation tools for certification in medical specialists is necessary; (2) Preparation of different training focuses for residents in distinct grades is important; (3) Regular follow-up of the evaluation results for milestone programs is essential. Our findings and suggestions could be regarded as references to improve residency training and certification examinations in anesthesiology for those who are concerned."