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篇名
臺灣女性在滿洲的生活經驗(1905-1948)
並列篇名
Living Experiences of Female Taiwanese in Manchuria (1905-1948)
作者 許雪姬
中文摘要
有關在滿洲的臺灣婦女,過去的研究有限,主要原因在於臺灣學者並不重視 這段「偽滿」的研究,遑論廁身其間的臺灣人,就更不用說其中的女性。其次是 相關史料不多,只有些許附著在日本史、中國史中,因為當時到滿洲的女性大半 是家庭主婦,不會被記載下來。本文利用日治臺灣留下的「旅券下付表」,各高等 女學校的「同窓會名簿」以及當事者的口述歷史,來進行此一研究。到滿洲臺灣 婦女的人數很難估算,推測可能有五、六百名。她們到滿洲的原因,大半因丈夫 或親人在滿洲,或者偕同去觀光或商業視察,極小部分前往就職。她們的年紀在 三十上下,是生育的年齡,又遠離臺灣的親人,家中有事必須自己一肩扛起,故 有的自臺灣或當地尋找女/男性家庭助手;由於家事繁忙,與當地的滿洲人、日 本人接觸不多,因此參加臺灣同鄉的聚會就很重要。本文除了介紹婦女本身,也 介紹了其丈夫的履歷,使了解受高等學校教育的女性,其婚配的對象大半是醫師、 官僚、國策會社的社員。除了家庭主婦外,有數名醫師,其中最傑出的是謝久子, 她不僅是醫師,也通過滿洲國高等文官考試,成為第一個通過國家考試成為技術 官的臺灣女性。此外有教師、藥劑師、護士、助產士、家庭助手。她們在滿洲的 集體經驗,以及日本敗戰後,如何面對蘇聯侵入滿洲、國共內戰,終能返抵家門 的經過,也是本文的重點。由於 1905 年日本才取得旅順、大連,而 1948 年是在 東北的臺灣女性回臺的最後一年,因此本文論及的期間為 1905-1948 年。
英文摘要
Studies on Taiwanese women in Manchuria have been scarce. The main reason is that Taiwanese scholars have little interest in Manchukuo, the Japanese puppet regime, even less so about Taiwanese who went there, and the least about females among them. In addition, related historical materials are scant because Taiwanese women in Manchuria at that time were mostly housewives and hence, quite unlikely to leave substantial public or official records. Only bits and pieces of information can be found in the general history of Japan and China. The materials used in this article include the Passport Record List (旅券下付表) of the Taiwan Governor-General's Office, name lists of alumni associations of girls' high schools, and oral history interviews of people involved. The exact number of Taiwanese women in Manchuria at that time could hardly be known and was estimated to approximate five to six hundred. Most of them went there because their husbands or relatives were there; some went as companions for sightseeing or business; only few went for work. Their average age was around thirty, the child-bearing age. They left their families/relatives back home and had to manage the entire family by themselves. Thus, some did hire help either from Taiwan or among the locals. Heavily engaged in household tasks, they had little contact with either the locals or the Japanese. Hence, it was essential for them to mingle with the Taiwanese. In addition, this article also provides information about their husbands, revealing that women who received higher education were usually married to physicians, government officials, or members of the semi-official Kokusaku Gaishia (国策会社/こくさくがいしゃ). Besides being housewives, a few of these women were physicians, and the most outstanding one was Hsieh Chiu-tzu (謝久子). She not only worked as a physician but also passed the high-level civil service examination of Manchukuo, and became the first female technical official from Taiwan. Others worked as teachers, pharmacists, nurses, midwives, and domestic helpers. Their collective experience in Manchuria as well as how they faced the upheavals of post-war Soviet intervention, the Chinese civil war, and in due course returned to their hometown are allkey topics of discussion. It was in 1905 that Japan occupied Port Arthur and Dalian, and 1948 was the last year for these women to return to Taiwan; hence, this article confines its discussion to the period between 1905 and 1948.
起訖頁 43-109
關鍵詞 滿洲臺灣女性高等女學校旅券下付表Manchuria Female Taiwanese Girls' High School Passport Record List
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 202009 (27:3期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-上一篇 Selden Map有關臺灣與琉球的描繪及其知識淵源:兼論北港與加里林的位置與地緣意涵
該期刊-下一篇 戰後臺灣糧食體制運作的困境與對策(1950-1953年)
 

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