Objectives: To measure the degree of frailty in older adults, it is common to use Frieds frailty phenotype index in Taiwan and advanced countries, whereas the Taiwanese government uses the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) index. This study aimed to compare the consistency between SOF index and Frieds frailty phenotype index to assess frailty in general community-dwelling older adults and those living alone in one district in Taipei City, Taiwan. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 471 older adults living in Taipei City, including 369 community-dwelling older adults living with families and 102 living alone. Spearmans rank correlation analysis was employed to assess the concurrent validities of the two indices in all elderly by residential status , communitydwelling older adults, and those living alone. Results: There was a moderate association between Frieds frailty phenotype index and SOF index in all older adults (r = 0.51* ), community-dwelling older adults (r = 0.53* ), and those living alone (r = 0.44* ). When the indicator of slowness from the Frieds frailty phenotype index was included in the SOF index, the value between the two indices increased for all older adults (r = 0.70* ), community-dwelling adults (r = 0.72* ), and older adults living alone (r = 0.56* ). Conclusions: The SOF index can be a valid screening tool to evaluate frailty for older adults in Taiwan, consistent with results from advanced countries. Adding the indicator of slowness to SOF index is recommended as effective frailty screening tool.