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篇名
歌人尾崎孝子的移動與殖民地經驗:在新女性思潮中航向夢想的「中間層」
並列篇名
Migration and Colonial Experience of Ozaki Kouko: A "Middle Class" in Pursuit of Dreams within the New Woman Thought Movement
作者 顏杏如
中文摘要
本文嘗試從性別與社會階層的角度,追探一位擁有殖民地經驗的歌人,尾崎孝子的移動經驗與軌跡,藉此檢視日俄戰後到1920年代,中間層日本女性移動的另一種路徑、動能、圖像,及其所具有的意義。尾崎孝子,1897年生於福島商家的舊中間層,家族事業在日俄戰後的經濟變動中沒落,開啟了一家的離散與移動。親族渡航殖民地成為日後孝子前往臺灣的先導。在一次世界大戰期間,都市工業興起的背景下,孝子成為離村向都眾多青年中的微小身影。成為「職業婦女」的她,因商家的成長背景-未擁有文化資本,在資本主義發展的都市中淪為中下勞動階層,直到走入婚姻,始踏入新中間層的生活。從地方到都市,從工作跨入婚姻,呈顯了孝子渡臺前地理上的遷徙,以及社會階層的移動與複數經歷。生活漸趨穩定的婚後,為了追求自我、實現文學的夢想,孝子不顧家人反對,航向臺灣。除了既存的親族網絡外,1910年代少女時期透過閱讀經驗,接受新女性思潮給予的刺激,以及女子教育擴大後少女雜誌掀起的文學熱,皆是其航向殖民地背後存在的動能。在殖民地臺灣,孝子專注於短歌創作,並成立以家計為考量的婦人社群,與官方的婦女團體無涉,經營屬於中間層婦人的生活圈。殖民地的生活、體驗與風土,成為自我充實的養分,也是短歌創作的礦脈。臺灣是其夢想實踐之地,他鄉變故鄉之地,也是職業寫作生涯展開之地。陸續渡臺的孝子之男性親族,皆在殖民地官廳的非正式僱用制度中覓得一職,提示了殖民地新中間層的形成樣態。孝子的案例,與同屬中間層女性的殖民地經驗擁有一些共通性-透過在臺的親族網絡移動,與臺灣人社會的互動微乎其微,殖民地成為施展自我、社會階層上升的場域。但不同於在帝國擴張中輔佐男子向外開拓的類型,孝子的移動不僅逸脫了「賢妻良母」的框架,亦欠缺與國家的連結,提示了新女性思潮影響下,藉由移動、離鄉,追求自我實現的女性身姿。
英文摘要
This paper attempts to explore the migration experience and trace the footsteps of Ozaki Kouko, a Japanese female poet with colonial experience, from the perspectives of gender and social stratification. The paths, motivations, images and significance of the migration of middle-class Japanese women from the Russo-Japanese War until the 1920s are examined. Born in 1897 to a merchant family of the old middle class in Fukushima, Kouko witnessed the decline of her family business following the Russo-Japanese War, leading to the diaspora and migration of the family. A relative that left for Taiwan would become a pioneer for Kouko, who later migrated to Taiwan herself. During World War I, Kouko became one of the numerous youth who, against the backdrop of emerging industrialization in metropolitan areas, left the countryside for Tokyo to seek their livelihood. Kouko herself became a working woman. Owing to her merchant family background, she lacked cultural capital and hence sank into the mid to lower working class in the developing capitalist metropolis. After getting married, her social class changed once again as she became the new middle class. From the rural to the metropolitan; from a working career to marriage life, Kouko already had rich experience in geographical migration and social mobility long before her departure for Taiwan. After marriage, Kouko’s life became more stable. Despite opposition from her family, she headed for Taiwan for self-actualization and in pursuit of her dream in becoming a writer. Kouko’s existing family networks, her teenage reading experience in the 1910s, the New Women Thought Movement, and boom in literature after the expansion of female education were driving forces behind her migration to colonial Taiwan. In colonial Taiwan, Kouko focused on composing tankas, founded a female social group, with livelihood in mind, independent of any other official women’s groups, and formed a circle of middle-class women. Colonial life, experiences and nature nurtured the creative talent of Kouko and enriched her writing. Taiwan was where her dreams were fulfilled, a foreign land that became her home and the launch pad of her writing career. Her male relatives who went over to Taiwan all obtained informal employment within the colonial government system, revealing the formation of the colonial new middle class. Kouko, as a case in point, illustrated the commonality of the colonial experience of middle-class women: migration supported by social connections and rare interaction with Taiwanese society. Colonial Taiwan served only as a platform for self-enrichment and upward movement on the social ladder. In contrast to women that assisted men in opening up new territories under imperial expansion; Kouko’s migration was not only beyond the framework of "wise wife and good mother", but also independent of the "nation". Kouko’s case was a woman figure influenced by the New Women Thought Movement opted to migrate and leave home in pursuit of self-actualization and personal aspirations.
起訖頁 65-110
關鍵詞 日治時代移動中間層尾崎孝子新女性在臺日本人Japanese Colonial EraMigrationMiddle ClassOzaki KoukoNew WomenJapanese in Taiwan
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 201606 (23:2期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-上一篇 林朝棟與清季臺灣樟腦業之復興
該期刊-下一篇 紅塵中有閒日月:1920年代黃旺成的社會觀察、政治參與及思想資源
 

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