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篇名
林朝棟與清季臺灣樟腦業之復興
並列篇名
Lin Chao-tung and Revival of Camphor Industry in Late Nineteenth-century Taiwan
作者 黃富三
中文摘要
臺灣樟腦在咸豐8-10年(1858-1860)開港後出口日益興盛,同治9年(1870) 到達高峰後逐步衰退,至光緒11年(1885)幾近於零,樟腦王國為日本取代。隔年(1886),臺灣巡撫劉銘傳推動開山撫番政策,道員林朝棟力贊,且建議樟 腦專賣,從而主導中路撫墾事務,促成臺灣樟腦業之復興。關於林朝棟與樟腦業的關係,以往作品因缺乏一手史料僅能輾轉抄襲,甚至以訛傳訛。本文運用筆者新發掘之「霧峰林家文書」,結合相關史料,重建重 要史實,分四方面論述:林朝棟在開山撫番期與公泰洋行合作之背景、樟腦自 由買賣期雙方合作之始末、自營產銷,以及對清季臺灣腦業發展的貢獻。所獲 結論如下。第一,不少作品稱林朝棟擁有樟腦專賣權,此說不正確,事實是:他在樟 腦專賣時期(1886-1890)管理中路撫墾局,並率領棟軍,維持產銷秩序;而光緒17年(1891)開放自由買賣後,則投資中路樟腦業,並與外商合作出口樟腦。第二,林朝棟與公泰洋行之合作有二大因素。一是世界樟腦之需求與德國 化學工業之勃興,樟腦乃重要原料之一,故求之於世界最大產地的臺灣;二是 林朝棟在開山撫番政策上扮演要角,甚至投資樟腦業,外商必須透過他方能取 得大量而穩定的供應量。第三,林朝棟與公泰洋行之合作,以往作品語焉不詳,本文確認其時間為 樟腦開放自由買賣後之光緒17-19 年(1891-1893)間,前後共三年。然而,光緒20年(1894)其轄下部分腦商可能另外訂約,由公泰出口;而光緒16 年(1890)專賣期林朝棟是否已私自與公泰合作?此有待確認。此外,雙方合作終止之原因,一般說法是林朝棟片面要求漲價,實際上是公泰洋行認為香港腦價會下跌而要求減價,而光緒20 年確實下跌。第四,林朝棟與公泰洋行合作終止後,創設「福裕源」商號(光緒20年5月-21年3月)自營產銷,並與其他洋行合作,如瑞記洋行。此進一步反映林家 經營樟腦業之全貌。 第五,林朝棟在清季臺灣腦業發展的評價,近年來負面多於正面,本文予以釐清,歸納出三點:(1)開山撫番政策確為臺灣樟腦業振衰起敝之關鍵因素;(2)內山產腦區之擴張與棟軍之駐防有關;(3)臺灣樟腦業復興之主力來自中 路產銷之大增。因臺灣樟腦出口在同治9 年達到高峰後即走下坡,至光緒11年陷於谷底,僅有399磅;但開山撫番後,自光緒12年(1886)即快速回升,至光緒19年年出口量達5,321,463 磅,超越日本、奪回世界樟腦王國之寶座。因此林朝棟雖非清季臺灣樟腦業的壟斷者,但無疑是促成產業復興的主要功臣。
英文摘要
With Taiwan opening ports to foreign trade in 1858-1860, the export of Formosan camphor increased gradually, peaked in 1870, but declined and sank almost into oblivion by 1885. As a result, Japan surpassed Taiwan in being the chief producer and exporter of camphor. Situation changed when Liu Ming-chuan, the then governor of Taiwan, launched his campaign of "opening up the mountains and pacifying the aborigines" in 1886. Lin Chao-tung not only implemented Liu’s policy but also recommended monopolization of camphor production and marketing. Through his work at the Pacification and Settlement Bureau in central Taiwan, Lin contributed to revive the camphor industry. Current literature on the relationship between Lin Chao-tung and the camphor industry lacked first-hand accounts and often contained erroneous information borrowed indiscriminately or rumors from unreliable sources. This article, with reference to the recently discovered "Lin’s Archives of Wufeng" and existing documents, attempts to explore and reconstruct the related significant historical facts. The exploration focuses on four main aspects: the background of the joint venture between Lin and Butler & Co., the evolution of their collaboration during the free-trade period, camphor production and marketing under Lin, and Lin’s contribution to the development of camphor industry. The findings are as follows. Firstly, some previous studies claimed that Lin owned the monopoly of camphor, which was quite misleading and should be corrected. During the Monopoly Period (1886-1890), Lin played a leading role in maintaining the state-monopolized camphor production and marketing in order through his post in the Pacification and Settlement Bureau in central Taiwan and his military force, Tung Army. After the camphor was open to free trade in 1891, Lin startrws investing in the industry and collaborated with foreign companies in camphor export. Secondly, two factors contributed to the joint venture between Lin and Butler & Co. in camphor trade. One was the soar in global demand of Formosan camphor, especially with the rise of chemical industries in Germany. The other was Lin’s important role in the campaign of “opening up the mountains and pacifying the aborigines” and his own investment in camphor industry. His support was indispensable to foreign merchants who sought to obtain a substantial and steady supply of camphor. Thirdly, the joint venture between Lin and Butler & Co. is now confirmed to be of three years lasting from 1891 to 1893. However, whether there was any unauthorized business dealing between them in 1890 or whether some camphor merchants under Lin continued cooperating with Butler & Co. need to be further examined. Contrary to what has been said in present works, the real reason why they terminated their collaboration was the request from Butler & Co. for price reduction. Fourthly, with Butler & Co. out of the picture, Lin made his own investment in camphor production and marketing. He established Fu-Yu-Yuan Company in 1894 and cooperated with other foreign companies in camphor export. Finally, prevailing appraisal of Lin’s role in camphor industry of Taiwan tended to be negative. While most previous works depicted that Lin monopolized the camphor industry, this article highlights his contributions toward the revival of camphor industry after it hit rock bottom in 1885. On the one hand, Lin’s implementation of the "opening up the mountains and pacifying the aborigines" policy was the turning point. On the other hand, the stationing of Tung Army in the mountain areas maintained order and fostered the production of camphor. Eventually, soar in camphor production revived the camphor industry and by 1893 Taiwan regained the status from Japan as the leading global producer and exporter of camphor.
起訖頁 1-64
關鍵詞 林朝棟劉銘傳開山撫番樟腦業中路撫墾局棟軍盈豐號(葛竹軒)裕豐號(陳汝舟)腦館公泰洋行福裕源Lin Chao-tungLiu Ming-chuanMountain-opening and BarbarianpacificationCamphor IndustryPacification and Settlement Bureau of Central TaiwanTung ArmyYing-Feng Company (Ge Zhu-xuan)Yu-Feng Company (Chen Ru-zhou)Camphor HouseButler & Co.Fu-Yu-Yuan Company
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 201606 (23:2期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
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