Background and purpose: Hemorrhoids is a common disease, but its prevalence, patient population and health seeking behavior were not reported in Taiwan. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of hemorrhoids and to explore the factors of undergoing surgical treatment such as gender, age, and Charlson comorbidity index. Methods: We used a nationally representative dataset (Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database) containing 1,000,000patients, who were randomly sampled from the years 2000,2005, and 2010, respectively. Information of diagnosis, examination, and treatment were further retrieved. The factors in relation to undergoing surgery for hemorrhoids patients were analyzed by logistic regression model. Results: 1. From 2000 to 2010,the crude prevalence of patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids increased from 1.37 to 2.01%, and the adjusted prevalence increased from 0.58 to 1.01%. 2. From 2000 to 2010,the proportion of patients undergoing surgical treatment decreased from 39.6 to 27.4%.Among all types of medical facilities where the surgery was carried out, clinics had the highest proportion (37.23%,p<0.05).Patients without comorbidities also had higher proportion as compared with those with comorbidities. (29.57%, p < 0.05). 3. From 2000 to 2010, the proportion of patients undergoing total hemorrhoidectomy decreased from 13.06 to 7.75%. The propor-tion was highest in regional hospitals and in patients without comorbidities. Conclusions: From 2000 to 2010, the prevalence of hemorrhoids increased in Taiwan, whereas the pro-portion of patients undergoing surgical treatments decreased. Patients with a higher comor-bidity score had a lower surgical treatment rate. The highest proportion of medical facilities undergoing surgical treatment for hemorrhoids was clinics.