Zhengyi religious practice after the Song Dynasty is believed to have been largely liturgical, serving the imperial court and popular religions. The services performed by a Zhengyi Daoist were the Jiao liturgy and exorcist rituals. The lives of lay Zhengyi Daoists were generally secular, and ceremonial services were performed only when requested by a temple or layperson. This article discusses the hermit philosophy and inner alchemy practices of Zhengyi Daoists in Jiangxi and Fujian during the 14th century. The image of Zhengyi Daoists presented in this paper differs from common historical perceptions of Zhengyi Daoists. In the 14th century in Jiangxi, Fujian, and Zhejiang, orthodox religion prevailed, with Longhu Mountain as the center. In this area, literati and Daoists had close interactions, advocating a retreat to the mountains and forests, and building rams and shelters on sacred mountains. The practice of inner alchemy was also common for these Zhengyi Daoists. This article (1) explores the reasons behind this phenomenon and (2) presents the specific religious practices of Zhengyi Daoists at a specific time and space, in an attempt to explain aspects of the personal training of elite Zhengyi scholars in the 14th century. The article provides a unique portrayal of the Zhengyi Daoists that differs from common impressions and stereotypes regarding historical Zhengyi Daoists.