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篇名
不死與長生:《漢武帝內傳》中的西王母及其仙道長生術
並列篇名
Immortality and Longevity: Hsi-Wang-Mu and Her Immortal Daoist Skills in Tales of Emperor Wu of Han
作者 高莉芬
中文摘要
自古以來道教修煉以長生成仙為目標,論其歷史發展,女神西王母亦是重要的神祇之一。西王母是漢代信仰中最重要的女神,西王母圖像大量出現在漢代墓葬空間中,祠堂墓室的雕刻與繪畫中的西王母,以其神聖的職務能撫慰生者與亡靈面對生命死亡的恐懼,與對不死的期望。對於漢人而言,西王母是掌「不死之藥」的女神,與「不死」密切相關。而對「長生不死」的追求則是秦漢以來仙道思想的核心,其後更成為道教丹道養生修煉的重點,西王母與中古時期的仙道思想發展有密切的關係。具有道教色彩的雜傳體小說《漢武帝內傳》,其內容鮮明反映出漢代以來西王母神話敘事中所蘊含的仙道思想與養生觀。今考《漢武帝內傳》中的女神西王母形象已與先秦戰國時期大不相同,成為傳經授道的女仙上聖,其所傳授之道又以「長生之術」為要,內容述及修煉實踐方法。今依文本敘事內容,可大分為修仙次第、養身之術與變化之道三大主旨以述,而此又與西王母信仰及身體修煉術之發展有關,值得再做探究。本文即以《漢武帝內傳》為主,探究在中古時期道教經傳中的女神西王母及其所傳授之「長生之術」的具體內涵。
英文摘要
From time immemorial, Daoists have practiced immortality as their goal. In terms of its historical development, the goddess Hsi-Wang-Mu was an important deity in the Han dynasty. Many images of the goddess appear in the tombs of the Han dynasty. In the carvings and paintings in the tombs of the ancestral hall, Hsi-Wang-Mu (西王母) is depicted performing her sacred duties, soothing the fear of the living and the spirit of the dead when they face death; meanwhile, Hsi- Wang-Mu can inspire their expectation of immortality. For the Han dynasty people, Hsi-Wang- Mu is the goddess who masters the “pills of immortality.” The pursuit of immortality has been at the core of the Daoist thought since the Qin and Han Dynasties and has since become the focus of health preservation of Daoism Dandao (丹道). Hsi-Wang-Mu is closely related to the development of immortal thought in the Middle Ages. The content of the Tales of Emperor Wu of Han has Daoist features and clearly reflects the immortal thought and health preservation concept contained in the mythological narrative of Hsi-Wang-Mu since the Han Dynasty. The image of the goddess in Tales of Emperor Wu of Han differs considerably from that in the pre-Qin and Warring States period, when she became a sacred goddess. In Tales of Emperor Wu of Han, Hsi-Wang-Mu’s teaching are based on the “immortal Daoist skills.” The practice methods mentioned in the book can be divided according to the narrative content of the text into three main themes: cultivation of immortals, health-preserving skills, and way of variety. These are related to the development of Hsi-Wang-Mu’s beliefs and body cultivation techniques, which is worth further research. This article focuses on Tales of Emperor Wu of Han, explores the specific connotation of the goddess Hsi-Wang-Mu and her teachings of “immortal Daoist skills” in the Daoist scriptures in the Middle Ages; furthermore, it also discusses its significance and the function of the belief in the contemporary Hsi-Wang-Mu.
起訖頁 001-025
關鍵詞 仙道西王母長生《漢武帝內傳》養生way of the immortalsHsi-Wang-MuimmortalityTales of Emperor Wu of Hanhealth preservation
刊名 師大學報  
期數 202009 (65:2期)
出版單位 國立臺灣師範大學
該期刊-下一篇 《凝陽董真人遇仙記》淺析—董守志、登真洞、全真道
 

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