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篇名
偏差行為的社會益損評估量表之發展與衡鑑
並列篇名
Developing and Evaluating the Scale for Social Benefits and Losses of Deviant Behaviors
作者 吳中勤
中文摘要

解釋偏差行為的三個主要的社會心理學理論-社會學習理論、一般化緊張理論與社會控制理論,在測量 上較少重視個人對偏差行為的預期獲益與損失評估歷程。實徵研究也較少在測量中考量負增強對偏差行 為的正向影響,以及個人偏差行為對重要他人感受的影響評估(即社會損失評估)。本研究根據社會學 習理論與一般化緊張理論觀點,來建構社會獲益評估歷程的測量題項,分別捕捉到正增強與負增強對偏 差行為的正向影響。同時,也根據社會控制理論的理論觀點,建構社會損失評估歷程的測量題項,捕捉 到與重要他人的情感連結對偏差行為的抑制效果。本研究以八年級學生為對象,檢視偏差行為的社會益 損評估量表的信、效度。研究發現:(1)二階四因素社會益損評估模式與觀察資料適配良好。(2)偏 差行為的社會獲益評估歷程,包含「追求同儕認同」與「逃避負向生活事件」的獲益評估。(3)社會 損失評估歷程,則包含「依附同儕」與「依附父母」的損失評估。(4)追求同儕認同與逃避負向生活 事件是偏差行為的可能推力,但唯有依附父母的損失評估,能成為抑制偏差行為的拉力。根據研究結 果,未來研究除可進一步複驗此量表的信、效度外,也可考慮納入其它理論變項,檢視不同模式適於解 釋觀察資料的程度。教學實務上,教師可同時針對社會獲益與社會損失的評估焦點,實施多元教學活 動,以期削弱偏差行為的推力,增強抑制偏差行為的心理拉力。

 

英文摘要

Social Learning Theory, General Strain Theory, and Social Control Theory are three sociopsychological theories, which proposed to account for deviant behaviors. Social Learning Theory argued that differential reinforcement of behaviors, definition in favor of crime, the imitation of criminal models, and attached to deviant peer are four key influential factors leading to deviant behaviors. Deviant behaviors could be positively and negatively encouraged to be prolonged. For instance, someone who initially smoks may be encourage for his/her brave, and it may be also thought that is the way keeping his/her friendship. How people define certain behaviors as good or bad may be decided by his or her propensity of committing criminality. Moreover, deviant peer may also provid a model for imitating their deviant behaviors. Further, people who attaches to deviant peer may also learn deviant motivation and definition. General Strain Theory argued that failure to achieve positively valued goals (e.g. did not get good grade), inconsistent between expectations and achievements, removal of positive stimuli (e.g. divorce), and appearance of negative stimuli (e.g. been bullied) are crucial for deviant behaviors. Both theories try to find out encouraged factors for deviant behaviors. Instead, Social Control Theory proposes that relationships among individuals, commitments, values, norms, and beliefs prevents someone from deviant behaviors. Therefore, if moral beliefs (what is this?) are internalized, people will voluntarily limit their intention to commit deviant behaviors. This theory tries to understand the possible factors to reduce the likelihood of deviant behaviors. However, measurement of these three theories were rarely investigated the processes of social benefits and losses for expected behavioral outcome. The positive effects of negative reinforcement to deviant behaviors and inhibition effects of deviant behaviors to others feeling (social losses) were rarely measured in related measurement in empirical studies. This study constructed social benefits evaluation items based on Social Learning Theory and General Strain Theory to respectively capture positive effects of positive and negative reinforcements on deviant behaviors. Meanwhile, items for measuring social losses, based on social control theory, were designed to capture inhibition effects of affective connections to important others on deviant behaviors. This study included eighth grader as participants to evaluate the reliability and validity of social benefits and losses scale. Results showed: (1) Model of two second-order factors consisting four factors fitted to the observations. (2) Social benefits evaluation processes included pursing peers’ recognition and avoiding negative life events. (3) Social losses evaluation processes included losses evaluation for attached to peers and parents. (4) ""Pursing peers’ recognition"" and ""avoiding negative life events"" were considered as driving force, and there was only ""attached to parents"" was considered as pull force for inhibiting deviant behaviors. Results clearly showed that in evaluation process of social benefits, adolescence may try to get recognition from peers by means of committing deviant behaviors. It was also possible that they tried to unpleasure and pressure accompanied by avoiding negative life events throughout engaging in deviant behaviors. As to social losses evaluation process, loss evaluation of attachment to peer and parents were clearly different. Adolescence who considered more about peers’ thought were more likely to consider parents’ negative feeling. According to the results, further researches could not only reexamine the reliability and validity of this scale, but also could incorporate other theoretical variables to examine the fitness to the data. In practical, teachers are encouraged to conduct various teaching activities based on evaluation foci of social benefits and social losses, to weaken the driving force of deviant behaviors and reinforce the pull force to inhibit deviant behaviors.

 

起訖頁 097-122
關鍵詞 社會損失社會獲益偏差行為Deviant behaviorssocial benefitssocial losses
刊名 中華輔導與諮商學報  
期數 201905 (55期)
出版單位 台灣輔導與諮商學會
該期刊-上一篇 護親護面型毆妻男性個案多元自我衝突調整 理論與介入方案研究
該期刊-下一篇 以自我調節理論 分析中年就業者的有效求職自我調節策略
 

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