The purpose of the study was to explore the basic scientific competences of elementary school teachers and to build key items for assessing their scientific competences. The study provides an assessment framework to the educational administration authority for developing appropriate measurements to assess elementary teachers’ scientific competences. This study adopted the modified Delphi technique, in which 19 experts participated in the study, including 7 science education scholars, 6 science scholars, and 6 elementary school science teachers. This instrument was a self-developed questionnaire, titled “Assessment Items of Basic Scientific Competence for Elementary School Teachers”. Experts needed to give their opinions on whether the expression of each item was important and clear. The researchers collected the opinions from experts and modified the assessment items. After three rounds of survey, the experts reached a consensus after statistical analysis and qualitative data encoding induction, thus obtaining science competence assessment items with high importance and consistency. The results of the study found that 22 science competence assessment items, which were developed and based on the learning performance of the natural sciences curriculum guideline, presented two main problems in the first round. First, some items covered more than two competences in one item. Second, some items included the assessment of more than one competence. Thus, the framework of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 scientific literacy was adopted to develop the competence items in the second-round survey. After the results of the third survey, the opinions of the experts and scholars were collected to obtain 20 competence items in three dimensions. The dimension of "explaining phenomena scientifically" consists of 6 items in three sub-dimensions, including "applying knowledge", "producing knowledge", and "influence of knowledge". The dimension of "evaluating and designing scientific enquiry” consists of 9 items in two sub-dimensions, including "proposing problem" and "designing methods". The dimension of "interpreting data and evidence scientifically" consists of 5 items in two sub-dimensions, including "interpreting data" and "proposing evidence and argumentation". It is suggested that the educational administration authority which examines elementary school teachers’ profession on scientific competences could use the assessment items developed from this study to develop corresponding assessment items.