The unique population movement and emigration in Kinmen is under-recognized by academic fields. This article basing on the analysis of secondary data and government documents focuses on population movement and migration from 1949 to 2016 and connects it with the development of main social institutions. The core finding is that Kinmen is a special case with the population dividend now and it seems to hardly change the immigration of the youth and uneven population distribution. On the other hand, the migrants experiences the transition in life in Kinmen, thereby maybe generate separation of families and specific risks. The care deficit due to the exchange of population between Kinmen and other areas and the social problems need the proper interventions by State.