Catheter-related infections prolong hospital stays and increase medical costs and mortality of patients receiving total parenteral nutrition(TPN). The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with central venous catheter-related infections in adult patients receiving TPN. This study was a 4-year retrospective analysis of adult patients receiving TPN, whose clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded from medical records; patients with repeated central venous catheter-related infections were excluded. In total, 412 patients were analyzed, 605 insertions of a central venous catheter were carried out, and 54 patients had a central venous catheter related-infection, for an infection rate of 13.1%. This study showed that the longer the duration of TPN, patients suffering a malignancy, and the use of a Port-A catheter all increased the risk of a central venous catheter-related infection. In order to reduce the development of central venous catheter-related infections, the duration of TPN should be reduced, and care of patients suffering a malignancy or using a Port-A catheter should be enhanced.