This study explores the possibility of applying "Taiwan Sotokufu Personnel Directory" to research in humanities. Developed by Archives of Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica, this Directory contains the staff records of the Taiwan Sotokufu during the Japanese colonial period between 1896 and 1944. The 950,000 records in the Directory are unique, continuous and integral. This research focuses on elementary school teachers with special emphasis on classification and quantitative analysis of digital records in the Directory to ensure accuracy of research. Changes in teacher composition and the elementary school education system, including primary schools, common schools, and kokumin gakko, were examined. Although application of the Directory has some limitations, the findings evidenced the usefulness of both value-added process and data mining technique for in-depth humanities research.