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篇名
日治時期都市公園的設施組成、休閒機能和活動變化
並列篇名
Changes in Facilities, Functions and Activities of Urban Parks during Japanese Colonial Era
作者 徐聖凱
中文摘要
本文梳理日治都市公園休閒機能的發展輪廓,以全臺公園與公園設施調查為基礎,討論日治公園之擴張、類型與位置,以及各時期設施與活動變化,再透過設施與活動變貌,初步提出公園休閒機能變遷之論說。經本文調查,日治全臺至少設置了33座都市公園,整體發展由人口集中的主要都市,向一般市鎮擴散,範圍由本島西部往東部、離島擴張。然而臺灣的公園,在1910年代以前被置入大量教化性用具,而抱持較強的教化性格,直到1910年前後休閒性設施才漸豐富,尤其1920年代以降,運動場、兒童遊園地、動物園、水泳場等遊憩設施大量進駐,公園成為集合多種遊憩裝置的群聚性休閒空間。日治前期官辦之慶典、祭典、儀式,在公園活動中扮演重要角色,1920年代以降,隨多種休閒設施群聚公園內,於公園舉辦之休閒活動愈見頻繁,臺人中下階層亦於1930年代常在公園出沒。戰時公園空間或活動,皆往戰爭協力方向發展,然其日常性「提供休閒」的機能,於戰時也未完全消失,直到1943年6月以降為增產糧食和預防空襲,公園休閒機能快速崩壞。透過公園被轉用為戰爭協力工具,或置入大量教化用具,反映公園也是執政者藉以推展其社會教育之中介工具,從而帶來民眾休閒教育化之現象。
英文摘要
This article traces the development of urban parks during the Japanese colonial era with respect to their leisure functions. According to an investigation of parks and park facilities in Taiwan under Japanese rule, the author discusses the expansion patterns, types and locations of these parks as well as changes in their facilities and activities over the years. Examining these changes would shed light on evolution of the leisure function of parks. In Japanese colonial Taiwan, at least 33 urban parks were established, first in highly populated main cities, then in smaller towns| first in the west, then in the east of Taiwan main island, and finally on offshore islands. Nevertheless, prior to the 1910s, these parks served the political education rather than recreation purpose, with mainly edification aids installed on site. Leisure facilities were beginning to be seen around the 1910s| and recreation facilities including sports fields, playgrounds, zoos and swimming pools were widely established after the 1920s. Urban parks were eventually transformed into a gathering space for leisure and pleasure. Under early Japanese rule, activities held in parks were mainly official celebrations, ceremonies and rituals. With increasing leisure facilities installed, recreational activities were frequently organized. In the 1930s, middle- and lower-class Taiwanese people were often seen in parks. During the Second World War, the use and activities of urban parks became war-oriented though they retained their purpose as ''public spaces for leisure''. However, their recreation function came to an end after June 1943 when parks were turned into air-raid shelters and given over to food production. Reviewing how urban parks were transformed to serve diverse functions showed how the Japanese colonial rulers made use of such public leisure facilities as media for social and political education.
起訖頁 1-49
關鍵詞 都市公園公共空間休閒遊憩政治教化生活文化涵養Urban ParksPublic SpaceLeisurePolitical EducationLife Culture and Cultivation
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 202006 (27:2期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-下一篇 日治中期臺灣的社會事業(1921-1938):定義社會問題、輸送福利與傳遞知識
 

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