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篇名
父/母命難違?:清治臺灣分家中之教令與遺囑
並列篇名
In the Name of the Father/Mother? : Wills in Division of Family Property in Qing-Taiwan
作者 陳韻如林映伊
中文摘要
針對傳統漢人家產分配之法律史既有研究,偏重呈現家/房為單位、與律例中諸子均分等原則相呼應之靜態秩序圖像。本文則以《大清律例》、遺囑文書與《淡新檔案》為素材,動態地檢視在官方法規範、民間習慣,乃至官民相遇的地方衙門訴訟等三層次場域,家長的個人意志以教令或遺囑之方式在分家時的角色與作用。《大清律例》一方面強調父母的教令,另一方面也揭舉諸子均分之原則,並未明確表態孰優孰劣。清治臺灣遺囑文書則顯示尊長遺囑在分家過程中對子孫之一定程度約束力,且民間社會有意識地區別遺囑文書與一般的分家文書:前者為「尊長囑咐教令、子孫承受教令」的上對下方式,後者則偏重各房水平的合意。《淡新檔案》中的地方官則對於遺囑/教令與諸子均分原則同等認真對待,在依照情理的個案審斷中,尊長意志甚至時常凌駕諸子均分原則。本文顯示不論是「父命」或「母命」,都在分家時扮演重要角色。《大清律例》賦予母親許可子孫分家之權能。雖然母親通常在遺囑文書中扮演居次或者補充的角色,但是母親與父親作為遺囑立字人的數量其實不相上下。相較於幾乎只見男性子孫合意的一般分家鬮書,遺囑文書顯示女性對家產的實質影響力。母親與祖母主持分家、進而涉訟的身影,也出現在《淡新檔案》中。尊長意志與諸子均分等原則,共同構築清治臺灣漢人分家之法秩序。經歷了歷史的斷裂與連續,以父母教令為核心、非硬性權利的清治臺灣遺囑運作邏輯,仍作為代間財產移轉法秩序之一環存在於當今臺灣。
英文摘要
Existing legal history research on division of family property in Taiwan focuses mainly on the Great Qing Legal Code (hereinafter, the Code) with the equal inheritance principle for succession by each son/sub-family. With reference not only to the Code but also historical data from wills in Qing-Taiwan and the Tan-Hsin Archive, this paper analyzed the role and impact of family elders' wills in the division of family properties. Firstly, the Code emphasized the elders' authority to teach, instruct and discipline the juniors. While the elders had the final say on how family properties were to be divided, the Code also upheld the principle of equal inheritance among all sons. Secondly, in contrast to allotment agreements made on the basis of consensus or consent among all (male) heirs, wills were drawn up purely in accordance with the elders' wishes and executed in the manner of 'seniors dictate, juniors obey'. Hence, in social practice, the elders' decisions had greater binding on asset allotment among heirs. Records of the Tan-Hsin Archive reveal that magistrates took wills seriously and had great respect for the elders' wishes, sometimes even overriding the equal inheritance principle. In addition, (widowed) grandmothers and mothers' wills and decisions were also influential in division of family property, indicating that women also had control over asset allotment in Qing-Taiwan. Overall, the legal order of property transfer in present-day Taiwan still upholds both the equal inheritance principle and the binding power of elders' will.
起訖頁 1-50
關鍵詞 傳統中國法清治臺灣法遺囑《淡新檔案》分家女性財產Traditional Chinese LawQing-TaiwanWillsTan-Hsin ArchivesThe Distribution of Family PropertyWomenProperty
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 202003 (27:1期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-下一篇 殖民醫學的先鋒︰從牡丹社事件到乙未戰役的軍陣醫學
 

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