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篇名
冷戰與去殖民:美國政府對戰後初期臺灣獨立運動的試探與評估(1947-1950)
並列篇名
Cold War and Decolonization: Exploration and Evaluation of US Government on Taiwan Independence Movement in Early Postwar Period
作者 陳翠蓮
中文摘要
有關戰後美國對華政策的研究,大多將臺灣與中國政府視為一體。本文嘗試將美/中兩方關係修正為美/中/臺三方關係進行討論,並試圖以冷戰與去殖民研究取向探討二二八事件後出現的臺灣獨立運動特徵、美國政府的態度、以及國民黨政府的回應。本文指出,不同於亞洲其他國家去殖民運動較親近共產主義的左翼路線,臺灣再解放聯盟獨立運動因資源匱乏,高度期待美國政府的協助,因此形成反共、親美、「依賴的去殖民」的特性。美國政府自1948年以來即出現將臺灣與中國分離的討論。他們希望見到「符合美國利益的臺灣自主運動」,而非由美國單方介入臺灣問題、承擔所有責任與後果。在冷戰結構下,美國政府認為高度依賴的臺灣獨立運動成本太高,經評估後逐漸將對臺政策轉向施壓國民黨政府進行政治改革,以維持臺灣的安定,如此足以拒絕共產勢力。另方面,美國政府也傾向由聯合國機制處理臺灣問題,由國際社會分擔責任,並在1950年9月送上聯合國大會議程。面對中共的威脅與美國政策的搖擺,國民黨政府迅速逮捕了臺灣再解放聯盟成員,並對臺獨運動者處以較輕的刑期,回應美國的關切、維繫友好關係。此後並配合美國政府的要求,在臺灣致力於政治改革與經濟穩定,徐圖再起。
英文摘要
Most of the studies on the postwar US policy toward China regarded Taiwan and the Mainland as a unity. This article attempts to revise the Sino-American relationship from bipartite to tripartite involving the US, China and Taiwan as separate entities. Moreover, using the research approach of Cold War and decolonization, this article explores the characteristics of the Taiwan independence movement after the February 28 incident, the attitude of the US government, and the response of Kuomintang to this movement. Unlike the pro-communist left-wing movement in other Asian countries, the Formosan League for Re-emancipation (FLR), due to scarcity of resources, yearned for and welcomed US assistance. Hence, its independence movement showed characteristics of anti-communist, pro-American, and “dependent decolonization.” The US government had discussed on separating Taiwan from China since 1948. They hoped to see “a Taiwanese autonomous movement which is in the US national interest,” rather than the US unilaterally intervening in the Taiwan issue and taking on all responsibilities and consequences. Under the Cold War structure, the US government considered it costly to support the independence movement of Taiwan. After evaluation, the US shifted gradually its Taiwan policy to pressuring the Kuomintang (KMT) government to undertake political reforms and maintain stability, which was considered enough to prevent the Communist spread. Moreover, the US inclined to resolve the Taiwan issue through the UN mechanism, which allowed the international community to share the responsibility. In September 1950, the US proposed including the “question of Formosa” in the agenda of the UN General Assembly. In face of the CCP threat and the US policy sway, the KMT government quickly arrested FLR members. However, in response to the US concerns and in order to maintain friendly relations, a lighter sentence was imposed on the members of the Formosa independence movement. Since then, the KMT government cooperated with the request from the US, strived to introduce political reform and achieve economic stability, aiming to reestablish itself in Taiwan.
起訖頁 91-138
關鍵詞 冷戰去殖民臺灣再解放聯盟黃紀男莊要傳林頂立Cold WarDecolonizationFormosan League for Re-emancipation (FLR)Peter HuangY. T. TsongLin Ting-li
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 201909 (26:3期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-上一篇 1920年代臺灣的書房教育:以鄭家珍《客中日誌》為觀察中心
該期刊-下一篇 戰後臺灣白色恐怖研究的回顧與展望
 

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