Background: Workplace bullying is known to have a significant and detrimental effect on the physical and psychological outcomes of its victims. The reactions of victims to bullying may decrease clinical care outcomes and patient safety. Purpose: To explore the relationship between workplace bullying and the attitudes of female nurses toward the safety of their patients. Methods: This cross-sectional survey study used convenience sampling. Participants included female nurses from a regional teaching hospital. The research tool was a three-part, structured questionnaire that included a basic personal information datasheet, negative behavior scale, and patient safety attitude scale. The researcher distributed 420 questionnaires and collected 329 valid samples (valid return rate: 78.3%). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22.0. Results: The analysis found that 29.8% of the participants had suffered from various degrees of workplace bullying. The mean score for patient safety attitudes was 3.58 (standard deviation = 0.55). Workplace bullying and patient safety attitudes were negatively correlated (p < .1), and being a recipient of workplace bullying was identified as a significant predictor of attitudes toward patient safety. Conclusions: Based on the results, we suggest that supervisors should take the initiative to care for their nursing staffs and to provide them with training in conflict-oriented skills. Organization managers should set up relevant committee-notification mechanisms that construct the safe working environment necessary to reduce workplace bullying and to enhance the patient safety attitudes of nurses, which will indirectly improve the quality of patient care.