Background: Patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis typically suffer from symptom discomfort and various degrees of disability for months or years prior to receiving surgical treatments. Knowing the factors that influence the disability status of these patients will help healthcare providers develop effective preventive measures. Purpose: To explore preoperative disability and its important predictive factors in patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis Methods: A predictive correlational design was used and a convenience sample of eighty-six lumbar spondylolisthesis preoperative patients were recruited from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected using a study questionnaire, which included the Oswestry disability index, the revised geriatric depression scale-short form, and a pain numeric rating scale. Results: The average disability index of the participants was 48.52 (SD = 16.14). The multiple linear regression analyses identified lower back pain, depression, age, and gender as significant predictors of preoperative disability, collectively explaining 40.9% of the variation in disability severity. Being female, being older, having a higher degree of lower back pain, and having depression were significantly associated with preoperative disability. Conclusions/Implications for Practice: The results of the present study indicate that lumbar spondylolisthesis patients who are older in age, female, currently experiencing lower back pain, and suffering from depression face a higher risk of preoperative disability. Patients in these at-risk categories should be assessed actively and provided with appropriate patient education in order to enhance their quality of life.