Second language learning is often affected by learners' native languages. Students from the “sphere of Chinese language influence” countries (i.e., Japanese and Korean) may have the advantages in learning Chinese as a second language (CSL) due to their familiarities with the Chinese language based on their native languages. They may also be subjected to interferences. To explore native-language transfer effect on CSL learning, this study compared the Chinese reading and listening comprehension performances of the 71 international students from “sphere of Chinese language influence” and “non-influenced” countries. Students' “working memory performance” and “Chinese language proficiency level” data were also collected to examine their influences on the comprehension performances. Results showed that although the reading comprehension performances did not differ between the two groups, the listening comprehension performance of the “non-influenced” group was significantly higher than the performance of the other group. A possible negative transfer effect from the Korean and Japanese languages to the CSL learning was found. Results also indicated that students' proficiency level is a major contributor to comprehension performances. It overweighed the native-language transfer effect. We suggested that the “sphere of Chinese language influence” factor should be considered when designing an adaptive CSL listening comprehension teaching.