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篇名
波普《批評論》中之對話、才思與批判
並列篇名
Dialogue, Wit, and Judgment in 'An Essay on Criticism' by Alexander Pope
作者 張登翰
中文摘要
波普提出「才思」(wit)與「批判」(judgment)之間的理想關係︰二者皆從「天道」(Nature)承受恩澤,而「才思」必須受制於「批判」或批評法則,否則創作必然踰矩,破壞天道和諧秩序。然而波普對「才思」與「批判」的論述,前後並不一致,波普自己的「才思」也並未服膺「批判」。以巴克汀對話理論觀之,「才思」有如「離心力」,而「批判」則有如「向心力」。波普之文藝表現,彰顯二者的對話關係︰並非「才思」一味屈從於「批判」,乃是雙方不斷彼此修正、挑戰。為了進一步探討二者關係,文中首先找出波普時代之前貶損和維護「才思」的兩派意見,接著指出波普在《批評論》中如何容納這兩種相左意見︰有時「批判」顯得比「才思」重要,有時卻正好相反。客觀批判在這種情況下實不可能;此外,品味變異不定,以及波普對「理性」的非議,造成所謂客觀批判更難達成。波普的「才思」不遵「理性」和「批判」,甚至於破壞了「存有大鏈」(the Great Chain of Being)的神聖性。儘管波普宣稱遵從理性,他卻對提摩西阿斯(Timotheus)操弄人的情感,十分著迷,而且他批判時,常常流露出「強烈情感的自發湧現」。「才思」在波普手法中充滿顛覆性,而其和「批判」不斷衝突,實說明了「對話」才是二者真正的遵循法則,並非「天道」。
英文摘要
In 'An Essay on Criticism,' Alexander Pope intends to propose an ideal relationship between wit and judgment: both derive their light from Nature, and wit must yield to the reign of judgment or critical rules because it may transgress the Nature-set boundary, fly without restraint, and consequently disturb the harmony in Nature. However, Pope neither renders wit and judgment in a consistent and stable relationship, nor submits his wit to judgment. In terms of the Bakhtinian dialogism, both wit and judgment work like the centrifugal force and the centripetal respectively, and Pope's artistry demonstrates their dialogic relationship—not that wit must always follow judgment, but that both must moderate each other in continual negotiation. In the following discussion, I will first of all discuss the features of wit, and study the voices of the attackers and the defenders of wit before Pope. In the next section I will point out Pope's incorporation of those contradictory voices: sometimes he exalts judgment above wit in importance, but sometimes he glorifies wit more than judgment. It is impossible to judge 'objectively' in such a condition; moreover, the fluidity of taste and the unreliability of reason also contribute to this impossibility. His wit 'betrays' reason and judgment so much as to upset the stability of the Great Chain of Being. Although Pope claims to follow reason, he is also fascinated by Timotheus's manipulation of audience's emotion, and he may criticize with 'the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.' Wit in Pope's artistry works indeed as a subversive, norm-defying force; its continual conflicts with judgment manifests that dialogue, not Nature, truly governs their relationships.
起訖頁 43-73
關鍵詞 波普《批評論》巴克汀對話才思批判Alexander Pope'An Essay on Criticism'Bakhtin dialoguewitjudgment
刊名 彰化師大文學院學報  
期數 201409 (10期)
出版單位 國立彰化師範大學文學院
該期刊-上一篇 藝術品、藝術家與藝術的真理海德格藝術思想之詮釋
該期刊-下一篇 代罪羔羊:《分崩離析》主角奧康渥的挫敗與哀痛
 

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