dustrial design services are closely related to the manufacturing industry. In this study, we identified three purely industrial design studios (Pilotfish, CRE8, and XD Design) for in-depth interviews. We adopted a multiple case study method and reviewed related industry survey literatures for investigating the development history and the relationships between foreign design studios, product manufacturers and local industrial design studios in Taiwan. The results showed that many foreign design studios were established around year 2000, when many Taiwanese 3C industries were transforming from OEM to ODM and OBM, and when the rapid growth of export orders translated into a growing demand for design. The course of development has three characteristics: 1. The number of clients grew while the budgets for the individual cases shrank; 2. The product types extended from B2C products to customized B2B products, and then to the tech startup product; 3. As the organization in a studio expanded, new types of designers and non-design professionals were added to the workforce, effectively reducing the proportion of industrial designers in the workforce. Notably, from 2006 to 2008, most product manufacturers had completed the establishment of in-house design teams, which caused a substantial reduction in the number of outsourced design cases. This change also pushed local design studios to develop their own brand of cultural products. Finally, despite the fact that Taiwanese “buyers” (3C product manufacturers) are no longer as attractive to international industrial design studios, Taiwanese 'suppliers' (model making companies, small-scale production processing companies, and the ample supply of hardware and software engineers) are still attractive for tech start-ups and foreign designers. These findings might provide useful references for design history research (2000-2016), industrial design-related industries, and government policy-making.