This article is a thematic book review of Rur-Bin Yang’s The Significance of Dissent: Intellectual Trends against Neo-Confucianism in Early Modern East Asia, whose treatment of Neo-Confucianism and early modern Anti-Neo-Confucianism represents a different trend among Taiwanese Confucianism Studies. It is argued that the unique perspective of Yang’s remarkable monograph embodies in its analysis of ideal types of Neo-Confucianism, its discussions about the ethics of reciprocity, and its examination of Ch’i Xue. Via these, Yang illuminates the theoretical ‘significance’ of Anti-Neo-Confucianism as ‘dissent’. Looking from the perspective of East-Asian Confucianism, and focusing both on Li Xue and Ch’i Xue and on research methods of East-Asian Confucianism, this article provides a different approach of thinking and a correspondent critique. Thus it further argues that, under the systematic classification of Neo-Confucianism, Ch’i Xue can only serve the descriptive function; therefore relevant attempts to establish an independent philosophy of Ch’i should be withdrawn. Although Ch’i Xue, as a branch of a posteriori Anti-Neo-Confucianism, has its independent significance, it is incompatible with Neo-Confucianism. Due to its deficiency in dealing with moral issues, the ethics of reciprocity cannot facilitate reflections on the modernity. As for current studies of East-Asian Confucianism, we should take heed of serious warnings such as failing to see the wood for the trees, and seeking similarities but ignoring differences.