從考試機關到人事機關--民國考試院的理念與現實- 月旦知識庫
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篇名
從考試機關到人事機關--民國考試院的理念與現實
並列篇名
The Examination Yuan: From the Examination Institute to the Personnel & Administrative Organ
作者 聶鑫
中文摘要
南京國民政府成立不久,即設置了中央最高考試機關--考試院。這一方面是基於五權憲法的“國父遺教”,另一方面也源於中國傳統科舉取士的文化。考試院的職權範圍並不限於狹義的考試(考選)權,還有人事(銓敘)權。在考試院體制的發展過程中,隨著政治現實的變化,以及中華民國憲法的擬定,考試院的組織與職權也屢有變更。1946年憲法與1947年《考試院組織法》所最後確立的考試院體制,不盡符合孫中山的理念,也有別於傳統中國或現代西方的範式。關於考試院制度有很多爭議,集中在考試院行使人事權之正當性、考試院應採首長制還是委員制、人事一條鞭與地方自治的矛盾、文官考選是否分省區定額、對民意代表應否通過考選銓定資格等問題上。研究民國考試院制度的形成與矛盾,對於當代中國考試、人事制度建設與政治體制完善,亦有一定參考意義。
英文摘要
The Nanjing Government established the national supreme examination institute-Examination Yuan. This was not only a consequence of 'the will of the founder' who (created) the Five-power constitution, but also a reflection of traditional culture of the Chinese imperial examination. Besides examination power, the Examination Yuan has personnel and administrative power. Looking at the development of the Examination Yuan, with the change of political reality and the formulation of the ROC Constitution, the organization and powers of the Examination Yuan were frequently changed. The system of the Examination Yuan which established by the '1946 Constitution' and the '1947 Examination Yuan Organization Law' is not in accordance with the idea of Dr. Sun Yat- sen and differs from the traditional Chinese or modern Western paradigm. There is a lot of controversy about the Examination Yuan, most of which focusses on the legitimacy of the personnel power of the Examination Yuan, the presidential system of the Examination Yuan, the conflicts between the centralized personnel & administrative power and the local autonomy, and some other issues. The research concerning the formation of the institution of the Examination Yuan as well as contradictions hidden in the system is valuable for constructing and improving contemporary Chinese institutions or systems of examination, personnel and politics.
起訖頁 565-582
關鍵詞 考試院考選銓敘人事一條鞭The Examination YuanExamination & SelectionThe Examination on the Examination on the Records & Qualifications of Officials in Making AppointmentsThe Centralized Personnel & Administrative Power
刊名 中外法学  
期數 201606 (2016:3期)
出版單位 北京大學法學院
該期刊-下一篇 中國憲法序言正當化修辭的時間意識
 

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