The Nanjing Government established the national supreme examination institute-Examination Yuan. This was not only a consequence of 'the will of the founder' who (created) the Five-power constitution, but also a reflection of traditional culture of the Chinese imperial examination. Besides examination power, the Examination Yuan has personnel and administrative power. Looking at the development of the Examination Yuan, with the change of political reality and the formulation of the ROC Constitution, the organization and powers of the Examination Yuan were frequently changed. The system of the Examination Yuan which established by the '1946 Constitution' and the '1947 Examination Yuan Organization Law' is not in accordance with the idea of Dr. Sun Yat- sen and differs from the traditional Chinese or modern Western paradigm. There is a lot of controversy about the Examination Yuan, most of which focusses on the legitimacy of the personnel power of the Examination Yuan, the presidential system of the Examination Yuan, the conflicts between the centralized personnel & administrative power and the local autonomy, and some other issues. The research concerning the formation of the institution of the Examination Yuan as well as contradictions hidden in the system is valuable for constructing and improving contemporary Chinese institutions or systems of examination, personnel and politics.