The purpose of this study is to examine children's social orientations from the perspectives of Piaget and Vygotsky. Children's social orientations to the environment were divided into four categories: adaptive-assimilation, adaptive-accommodation, agentive-assimilation and agentive-accommodation. The participants were 366 Taiwanese three- to six-year-old children in day care centers. The children were interviewed to collect their perspectives. The results indicated that the adaptive-accommodative orientation is the most frequent in the teacher situations. The second most frequent response was the agentive-accommodative orientation. Responses in the agentive-accommodative orientation increased with age while the adaptive-assimilative and agentive-assimilative orientations decreased with age. The most frequent response to peer situations was agentive-accommodative, and this orientation increased steadily with age; children were more and more likely to express themselves with peers. The young children actively tried to control and change their environment. They displayed their emergent agency. The implications for early childhood education are discussed.