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篇名
中國中古時期曆日中的活動、身體及其照護(9至10世紀)
並列篇名
Daily Activities in the Calendars of Medieval China (Ninth and Tenth centuries): The Case of the Body Care Activities
作者 華瀾
中文摘要
唐初,日常生活中可以做或不該做的活動會顯現在曆日裡。但多虧敦煌材料的發現,大約有五十種的曆日被保存下來,時代上精準地含蓋九至第十世紀。在曆日中,相當豐富的卜算技術被使用於日常生活裡,以決定那些活動是否可行。這不免讓人好奇曆日是怎麼製成的?作者用當時典藏在日本的材料試回答問題。其次,本文試圖指認出這兩百年材料中幾百種活動中的相關類別,以便統計分析。但是,要如何在這些統計之外,瞭解那些缺乏脈絡的活動?此處可以身體照護為例,在曆日中可歸類在「沐浴」、「剃頭」、「洗頭」、「拔白髮」、「剪手足甲」的語辭。本文使用不同的,如文集、醫療、宗教等材料,企圖回答下列問題:一、中國曆學對於這些一般與特殊活動的概念有哪些?二、身體論述與曆日所顯現的,二者之間有無持續的解決之道?而哪些會顯示在曆日之中?三、曆日中是否有對身體的論述?
英文摘要
Activities, what it is advisable to do or not, appear in the daily headings of Chinese calendars at the beginning of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). They have survived, thanks to documents found at Dunhuang, and are a relatively significant number of calendars, around fifty, spread over a period of time perfectly defined, from the ninth to the tenth century. The extreme abundance of divination methods used in the calendar to determine, among other, activities, leads at first to wondering about how calendars were made, with the inclusion of Japanese sources. In a second step, given the hundreds of listed activities, we try to identify the relevant category in order to make a statistical analysis over a period of some two hundred years. However, outside of this quantitative approach, how can we understand these activities that appear devoid of context? Here we take the example of body care, essentially summarized in the calendars by the expressions ’wash the hair and the body’ (muyu 沐浴), ’shaved head’ (titou 剃頭), ’wash the head’ (xitou 洗頭), ’remove the white hair’ (ba baifa 拔白髮), ’cut the nails of hands and feet’ (shou jian jia zu 剪手足甲). By convening diverse sources, literary, medical, religious etc., we try to answer the following questions: What were the Chinese conceptions of these activities in general and particularly in the hemerology of calendar? Is there a solution of continuity between discourses on body care and what is shown the calendar? Finally, does the calendar develop a specific discourse on the body?
起訖頁 1-59
關鍵詞 中古時期曆日曆學身體照護medieval Chinacalendarhemerologybody care
刊名 國立政治大學歷史學報  
期數 201605 (45期)
出版單位 國立政治大學歷史學系
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