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篇名
1950年代臺、日經濟關係的重啟與調整
並列篇名
Re-establishment and Adjustment of Taiwan-Japan Economic Relations in 1950s
作者 洪紹洋
中文摘要
本文以後進國家資本流入的觀點,對1950年代日資來臺之過程進行討論。1950年9月臺日貿易協定簽署起,初期來臺的日資顯現出延續戰前人脈的特性,但之後的投資則依循經濟利益的考量。二次大戰敗戰國的日本,在重建經濟後,至1950年代儼然已成為亞洲經濟大國。同時期日資來臺係著眼於商業與工業市場利益,並試圖將較為成熟的技術移轉來臺,此點與日資在東南亞諸國以戰後賠償的經濟合作,由政府領導企業進入當地參與公共工程的投資方式有所差異。戰前支配臺、日間的流通業財閥資本,戰後充分發揮綜合商社在多國設立據點的貿易公司機能,呈現與戰前市場不同的樣態。面對日本商業資本來臺,臺灣政府的態度較為消極,此或因其在一定程度上能由本國官方或民間貿易業者取代之故。政府國安部門曾欲以日商的反共態度作為是否同意其來臺的檢視指標,最終因查驗困難及對日經濟依賴而未能成功。日本工業資本透過合資與技術移轉的方式來臺生產物資,供應對象包含政府和軍事單位。政府透過實施產業政策,以確保來臺日資獲得基本市場。然而,為保護部分產業的本國廠商,有時則針對來臺日資引進資金與技術實施各類規範和 限制政策。1950年代臺灣接受先進國美國援助,部分日資透過提供原料和技術的方式,在美援計畫資助的羽翼下來臺。關於日本商業資本來臺,最初是冀望從美援計畫下攫取商業利益,但終究受限於美援的制度規範,僅能退而求其次運用自身的全球商業網絡參與物資流通事業。
英文摘要
This study discusses the subsequent inflow of Japanese investments following the signing of the Taiwan-Japan trade agreement in September 1950. Early investments from Japan were continuation of business networks established during the colonial era, while later investments were new ventures for economic benefits. As a defeated nation of WWII, Japan underwent economic restructuring. By the 1950s, Japan had become the largest economic power in Asia. During the same time, Japanese investments focused on the profit of business and industrial markets, and on introducing mature technology to Taiwan. This was in contrast to Japanese investments in other Southeast Asian countries, which were mainly for economic cooperation as a form of war compensation and were channeled through the government as investment in infrastructure. The zaibatsu capital which dominated distribution of goods between Taiwan and Japan during the colonial era assumed a new role in the post-war period. It was like a multinational enterprise setting up branch offices in different countries. The Taiwan government held a rather passive attitude toward the inflow of Japanese business investments, which to some extent could easily be replaced by domestic state-owned or private trade enterprises. The National Security Bureau had first thought of assessing the anti-communist stand of the Japanese businesses as the criterion for approving their investments in Taiwan. However, such plan did not work out partly because of the difficulty in evaluating political inclination of businesses and the dependence on Japanese capital for economic development. Through joint venture and technology transfer, Japanese industrial capital launched production of goods sold to both the government and the military sector. On the one hand, the Taiwan government implemented industrial policy that guaranteed a basic market for Japanese investments. On the other hand, it also imposed rules and restrictions on the inflow of capital and technology from Japan so as to protect local enterprises. During the 1950s when Taiwan received U.S. Aid, some Japanese investments were channeled into Taiwan through supply of raw materials and technology under the umbrella of the U.S. assistance scheme. However, rules and restrictions imposed on U.S. Aid forced Japanese investments to resort to their own global distribution network for entry into Taiwan.
起訖頁 165-210
關鍵詞 日本資本臺日經濟關係外國人直接投資去殖民地化冷戰Japanese InvestmentsTaiwan-Japan Economic RelationsForeign Direct InvestmentDecolonizationCold War
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 201606 (23:2期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-上一篇 紅塵中有閒日月:1920年代黃旺成的社會觀察、政治參與及思想資源
 

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