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篇名
教育投資與工資差異之分析
並列篇名
The Analysis of Investment in Education and Wage Differentials
作者 吳家聲游孟龍
中文摘要
本文依個人教育水準與工作所需教育水準之是否相稱,將勞動者區分為廣「適度教育」、「超額教育」以及「不足額教育」等三種教育狀態,使用民國81年度「人力運用調查」原始資料中的11,951個「15至64歲全職男性受僱者」為觀察對象,進行工資差異迴歸分析,並且建立Multinomial Logit模型,進行勞動市場特徵分析,得到以下結果:
1.誠如人力資本理論,隨教育水準的提高,將促使工資上升。但超額教育者之工資率相對的要比「適度教育者」之同儕低了5.5 %;而不足額教育者與「適度教育」之同儕相較,則擁有12.47%的工資優勢。
2在勞動市場中,超額教育者呈現平均較高的教育水準,又因教育年限較長,普遍經驗不足;而不足額教育者恰好相反,多為教育水準明顯偏低,但經驗表現則相當豐富。
3公部門的就業者較易發生超額教育狀態,而相對的,私部門之就業者則易發生不足額教育。不足額教育者年資顯著偏低,表示平均留在同一工作崗位之時間較短,呈現不穩定狀態,顯示容易流動;而超額教育者則因不顯著,故無法推斷穩定與否。
4就職業別而言,平均教育水準較高之職業,發生超額教育狀態之機率傾向較低;而平均教育水準較低之職業,發生不足額教育狀態之機率亦相對降低。
英文摘要
In this article, we divided workers into three categories of educational status according to the compatibility of the individual educational attainment with the educational training required for the surveyed job:“adequately educated,”“over-educated,”and“under-educated.”Using the 11,951 full-time working male employees aged 15-64 taken from the prime data of“Human Resources Survey In Taiwan: 1992,”we applied regression analysis dealing with wage differentials and formulated a multinomial logit model in order to analyze the characteristics of the Taiwan labor market. From the model we came to the following observations:
1.By definition, 4,234 persons (or 27.15%) are in the adequately educated category; 4,473 (or 37.43%) are over-educated; and 3,244 (or 27.15%) are under-educated. Obviously, the workers do not fit or match well for the required educational status.
2.The human capital theory says that the more education one receives, the higher wage one earns. We therefore infer that the higher educated workers should earn higher pay than their lower-educated counterparts. The wage rate of the over-educated is relatively lower than their adequately-educated counterparts by 5.5%; however, undereducated may earn less due to their lower educational level, yet they are earning 12.47% higher in terms of relative wages than those ""adequately educated."" It is therefore concluded that the relative wage rates for the under-educated are higher than the adequately-educatedand the adequately educated are better paid than the over-educated in relative terms.
3.Generally Speaking, the over-educated workers are less experienced in the labour market because of their longer years of receiving higher education. On the contrary, the under-educated, though with a lower educational background, turn out to be rather experienced in working places.
4.The government sector is apt to be overwhelmed with over-educated employees, while the private sector is apt to have more under-educated employees. Apparently, the shortened working years of the under-educated indicates that, on average, those workers are Staying at their jobs for the same work much shorter and tend to be unstable, changeable or unsteady with a higher turn-over rate in the labor market. The turn-over rate of the over-educated is not significant enough to judge that they face the same unstability or changeability as the under-deucated in the labor market.
5.In terms of the occupational classification, those with higher educational requirements or attainment are less likely to be“over-educated""; those required for jobs needing lower education, therefore, are not likely to be under-educated or get into such a situation.
起訖頁 27-53
關鍵詞 教育投資工資差異
刊名 勞資關係論叢  
期數 199412 (2期)
出版單位 國立中正大學勞工關係學系
該期刊-上一篇 關於權利事項與調整事項勞資爭議之區分
該期刊-下一篇 組織技術、管理資訊與員工績效控制機制之理論架構分析
 

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