孔子為何贊同曾點:注解發展與典範轉移之初探- 月旦知識庫
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篇名
孔子為何贊同曾點:注解發展與典範轉移之初探
並列篇名
Confucius's Approval of Zeng Dian: Pilot Study on The Development of Commentaries and Paradigm Shift
作者 江衍良吳德玲
中文摘要
《論語》先進篇子路侍坐章記載孔子問弟子之志,弟子分別回答。子路之志在使人民知勇向義,冉有之志在使民生富足,公西華之志為相禮之人,曾點之志是浴乎沂,風乎雩,詠而歸。孔子聞之,喟然而歎並贊同曾點之志。孔子為何贊同曾點之志?各家說法不一,本研究分析三十七位注解者之意見,共得到十二項注解,此十二注解又集中於四項注解。依注解出現之順序,第一項為知時與樂道,第二項為天理與氣象,第三項為浮海居夷,第四項為雩祭與禮教。此四項解釋差異極大,知時與樂道乃何晏提出,指曾點知時不願仕於亂世,而過著自在之生活。其後朱熹提出天理人欲與堯舜氣象,指曾點之志超越子路等人,達到極高超之境界。浮海居夷為黃震提出,指孔子見道不行,驟聞曾點之語,觸動其浮海居夷之思,因此喟然而歎,此歎乃感傷之歎。雩祭與禮教乃王充提出,為清代注家所重新詮釋,指曾點提出一套禮樂教化之道,從內在教化人心,不同於子路等人之方法。這四項注解各自引經據典,筆者依注解出現先後順序,試圖建構注解發展過程。再嘗試從孔恩典範轉移之觀點,說明此四項注解在發展過程當中所出現典範轉移之現象。
英文摘要
In the beginning of Analects, Zi Lu sat beside Confucius and kept records as he asked his disciples about their ambitions. Zi Lu's ambition was to make the people bold and make them understand righteousness; Ran You's ambition was to provide plenty so that the people could live comfortably; Gong Xi Hua's ambition was to be a moderator; Zeng Dian's ambition was to bathe in the Yi River, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing. After hearing this, Confucius sighed and gave his approval to Zeng Dian. Why did Confucius approve of his ambitions? Each scholar gives their own explanation. This study analyzes the opinions of 37 commentators, compiling twelve commentaries into four categories. In order of appearance, the first commentaries are on understanding the world and reveling in preaching, the second commentaries are on heavenly principles, the third commentaries are on traveling the world, and the fourth commentaries are on rain sacrifices and the code of ethics. There are large differences between these four categories. Understanding the world and reveling in preaching were proposed by He Yan, which denoted that Zeng Dian was familiar with the state of the world, was unwilling to serve as an official in those chaotic times, and lived his life freely. The heavenly principles and humanly desires and sagely astrology were later written by Zhu Xi, which stated Zeng Dian's ambitions were above those of Zi Lu and the rest and elevated him to a lofty level. Huang Zhen put forth consideration about the commentaries on traveling the world, in which Confucius experienced world's chaos and heard Zeng Dian's idea unexpectedly. This stirred his thoughts of traveling abroad which caused him to sigh in grief. Rain sacrifices and the code of ethics were raised by Wang Chong, which were reinterpretated by the Qing Dynasty commentators. These mentioned Zeng Dian's code of ethics and harmony which sought to reform people from within and was separate from the methods used by Zi Lu and the others. These four types of commentaries each quote the classics; the author followed the order of their appearance to describe the process by which they were created. Then Kuhn's paradigm shift was used to explain the paradigm shifts that occurred during the creation of these commentaries.
起訖頁 97-121
關鍵詞 論語孔子曾點典範轉移AnalectsConfuciusZeng Dianparadigm shift
刊名 長庚科技學刊  
期數 201412 (21期)
出版單位 長庚科技大學
該期刊-上一篇 臺灣簡訊文學在通俗文化上的意義:以myfone行動創作獎為例
該期刊-下一篇 世界知名食材南瓜作為運動增補劑來源之探討
 

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