1. 熱門:
首頁 臺灣期刊   法律   公行政治   醫事相關   財經   社會學   教育   其他 大陸期刊   核心   重要期刊 DOI文章
教育科學研究期刊 本站僅提供期刊文獻檢索。

Metaverse in the Military: Using Virtual Reality to Enhance Awe Emotions and Prosocial Behaviors Among Cadets
作者 熊師瑤 (Shih-Yao Hsiung)余民寧 (Min-Ning Yu)程淑華 (Shu-hua Cheng)


Virtual reality (VR) is an established medium that effectively elicits positive emotions by inducing a variety of authentic emotional responses. This technology offers an interactive, immersive, and realistic experience that enables vivid presentation of emotion-inducing stimuli, which are typically difficult to replicate in real-life scenarios. Given the challenge of replicating awe-inducing scenarios in traditional laboratory settings, few studies have investigated the concept of awe emotions (Silvia et al., 2015). However, advancements in VR technology have enabled researchers to overcome these obstacles.

The military field is an early adopter of VR technology. Traditional military training requires substantial human and material resources to be effective. In this context, VR technology can be employed to address limitations such as budget constraints and disparities between training environments and actual battlefields. It enables soldiers to train in a comparatively safe environment, thereby reducing the likelihood of personnel and equipment damage, increasing self-efficacy, and eliciting near-realistic cognitive and emotional responses.

Immersive VR with three-dimensional imaging is a technology that enables users to experience sensory perceptions, emotions, and physiological responses (Chirico et al., 2016). It facilitates body ownership through virtual cues, influencing both cognitive and sensory experiences (Slater & Banakou, 2021). VR induces the Proteus effect, in which virtual roles and behaviors become integrated into an individual’s self-concept and affect their real-life behavior (Yee & Bailenson, 2007).

Awe emotions promote the development of social cohesion by aligning individual goals with group values (Keltner & Haidt, 2003). Stellar et al. (2017) argued that emotions such as gratitude foster social commitment and prosocial behavior. Awe reduces an individual’s sense of self-importance and facilitates group integration and positive social interactions. These emotions not only improve spiritual well-being but also enhance prosocial behaviors.

Generally, research has reported that VR involves technological challenges and variable efficacy in terms of eliciting awe emotions (Saredakis et al., 2020). The present study investigated the potential of VR in the military context, specifically its effect on the psychological attributes (e.g., awe, gratitude, and spiritual well-being) and prosocial behaviors of military cadets. The following research questions were posed:

1. Can exposure to natural environments in VR elicit awe, gratitude, spiritual well-being, and prosocial behaviors in military cadets?

2. Does VR enhance these emotional and behavioral tendencies in this group?

3. Can VR effectively promote specific prosocial behaviors among this group?


In this quasi-experimental study, university students were recruited through social media platforms from a military school in northern Taiwan. After completing an online pretest questionnaire on awe emotions, the participants were stratified by grade and gender. Subsequently, they were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group to ensure the comparability of their pretest scores. Each participant received an NT$150 voucher as a token of appreciation for their participation.

After the participants were briefed at scheduled times and locations, they engaged in their respective activities. The control group was asked to watch a two-dimensional awe-inspiring video on a large screen and complete a questionnaire that was used to obtain informed consent and for a psychological assessment and analysis of prosocial behavior. After completing similar briefing and consent procedures, the experimental group was asked to use VR devices to watch the same video and complete the same questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was assessed as part of the experiment, and all participants received their vouchers at the end of the study, regardless of the amount they originally donated.

A total of 184 cadets were initially included in the study. After excluding cadets with incomplete responses, scheduling conflicts, and those who were unreachable, 100 military cadets were finally included in the study. These cadets were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group, with 50 cadets in each. The experimental group comprised 14 freshmen and 12 cadets each in their sophomore, junior, and senior years, with an equal number of male and female participants. The control group comprised 16 freshmen, 12 sophomores, and 11 students each in their junior and senior years, with 26 male and 24 female participants.

Results and Discussion

Exposure to awe-inspiring stimuli enhance the positive emotions and increase the resources of military cadets. The benefits of these effects include increased feelings of gratitude, a heightened sense of spiritual well-being, and a boost in motivation and concrete behaviors that are beneficial to group and societal welfare. Military academy training often induces negative emotions in students. The current study suggests that integrating positive emotions such as awe into military education can improve the physical and mental well-being of military cadets. Military educators should encourage their students to actively adopt positive emotions and altruistic thinking. Such a shift toward fostering positive emotions, rather than solely mitigating negative ones, can improve the psychological health and adaptability of military cadets.

Overall, awe can be elicited in military cadets through natural environments characterized by vastness. This effect is prominent in the context of VR. These awe emotions can further induce feelings of gratitude and spiritual well-being in the cadets, with gratitude serving as a mediating factor.

With a sense of spiritual well-being, awe emotions typically lead to prosocial tendencies, indicating a mediating effect. However, gratitude did not play a significant mediating role in the effect of awe on prosocial behavior. This suggests that awe emotions induced through VR for promoting prosocial behavior are not only related to connecting with others but also to an enhanced sense of life meaning. Therefore, awe is an emotion capable of self-transcendence and is beneficial in promoting group welfare (Keltner & Haidt, 2003; Stellar et al., 2017). In this study, although the proposed awe model was also valid for the control group, the total effect size was more favorable in the experimental group. Only the prosocial behavioral tendencies induced in the VR environment led to an increase in the volume of donations and the decision to donate among military cadets. These findings indicate that the utilization of VR in military academy settings fosters concrete prosocial behaviors among students.

Overall, this study confirms the prosocial behavior pathway of awe proposed by Perlin and Li (2020), who employed the “quiet ego theory of awe”. According to this theory, after an awe emotion is elicited in a military cadet, cognitive adaptation does not lead to a diminution of the self (disproving the small-self theory) but rather to robust development, thereby achieving balance between the self and the group. This process triggers interdependent self, which leads to the development of altruistic and prosocial behaviors. Therefore, the pathway to prosocial behavior in military cadets may not be solely stimulated by feelings of gratitude. As awe intensifies, self-oriented and other-oriented perspectives lose their mutual exclusivity. Specifically, awe increases the collective concern and awareness of “us” in military cadets, which closely aligns with the values of unity and collective well-being emphasized in military education. Rather than the small-self theory, the prosocial behavior stimulated by awe in military cadets aligns with quiet ego theory and the objectives of military academy education.

起訖頁 067-097
關鍵詞 利社會行為軍校生虛擬實境敬畏情緒靈性幸福感positive psychologymilitary cadetsvirtual realityawespiritual well-being
刊名 教育科學研究期刊  
期數 202406 (69:2期)
出版單位 國立臺灣師範大學
該期刊-上一篇 COVID-19線上教學教師情緒勞務對自我效能感影響之研究—以教學正念為調節變項
該期刊-下一篇 探討臺灣青少年因應新冠疫情之學習適應與幸福感差異性和預測力




讀者服務專線:+886-2-23756688 傳真:+886-2-23318496
地址:臺北市館前路28 號 7 樓 客服信箱
Copyright © 元照出版 All rights reserved. 版權所有,禁止轉貼節錄