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篇名
自我及其在生活世界中的運作:從存在現象學處境結構觀之
並列篇名
Self and How It Operates in a Life world: An Existential Phenomenological View
作者 劉淑慧夏允中王智弘孫頌賢
中文摘要

本文由存在現象學來看自我及其在生活世界中的運作,著眼於在世存有的三個相扣環節:(1)世界如 何存有;(2)人如何存有;(3)人與他者如何共同存有於世,以探究由客觀性處境與超越性籌劃所共 構的處境結構。自我認同被看作動詞,指涉:「個人在其置身處境之中,如何領會自己、他者與整體局 勢,並為自己編撰、導引與主演一齣個人戲劇,用以展現自己所選擇與設計的角色形象」。自我認同之 實踐則涉及劇中之「我他交往」策略運用,以及情節與意義之雙重開展。任一齣個人戲劇的配角演員, 也都同時是他們自己的個人戲劇的主要編劇、導演與演員;而任一齣戲的主要編劇、導演與演員也同時 是他者的個人戲劇中的配角。從存在現象學重新解讀本期文章顯示,在做自我角色定位時,需要:覺察 過去選擇的角色定位,欣賞過去的正向經驗,協調不同自我角色的重要性與優先性,形成明確角色內 涵。在籌劃未來可能性時,需要與他者共同協調出能夠完成各自個人戲劇的我他交往策略與舉措:為過 去的個人戲劇所帶來的結局承擔責任,挑選他者,並據以調整自我展現策略與舉措,預見不同我他交往 策略與舉措可能為自己和他者招致的損與益,並根據他者回應而調整自我展現及我他連結之策略與舉 措,展開新劇本,串起過去、當下與未來的流動。建議未來研究針對存在現象學之各種成對相互構成 (關注自我與他者、處境與籌劃、行動與意義、安身與立命以及文化與自我)來尋求研究架構和方法上 的突破。

 

英文摘要

In this paper, the self and how it operates in a life world is illuminated in an existential phenomenological view. The situational structure, the result of the co-construction between objective situatedness and transcendent projecting, is analyzed based on analyses of (1) how the world exists, (2) how a person exists, and (3) how a person and the others coexist in the world. Along this line of thinking, self-identification is considered as a verb instead of a noun. It refers to ""how a person composes, directs, and stars a personal drama in order to display the character image he or she chooses and designs. The practice of self-identification involves the application of I-other-relating strategies and the unfolding of plots and meanings in one’s personal drama. A personal drama may be composed of scenes of various fields or from various points of time flow. The core of a drama locates in both (1) what is displayed and perceived on the stage and (2) what is communicated by the composer, director, and star. For each personal drama, all of the supporting actors are the main composer, director, and star in their own personal drama; the main composer, director, and star is a supporting actor in others’ personal drama.

The current issue includes 5 papers. They are ""self-identity and self-esteem during different stages of adolescence: the function of identity importance and identity firmness, ""a case study of the multi-selves conflicts coordination theory and intervention program to a male batterer who values the Chinese face and family,""""developing and evaluating the scale for social benefits and losses of deviant behaviors,""""using selfregulated theory to understand effective job searching self-regulatory strategies: mid-aged job seekers in Taiwan,""""drug offenders learned in the savoring group program.""These papers showed the following results. At the point of defining character, one needs to: (1) be aware of past decision about one’s character definition, (2) appreciate one’s past positive experience, (3) arrange the importance and priority of various selves, and (4) clearly define specific content of one’s character. At the point of projecting future possibilities, one needs to negotiate and cooperate with the others to come out with mutual-accepted I-other-relating strategies and actions. These may include but not limit to: (1) take the responsibility of whatever result from previous personal drama, (2) with true understanding, pick up the others appropriate for I-other-relating, (3) adjust self-presenting strategies and actions in correspondence of the others, (4) foresee possible benefits and losses for oneself and relating others resulting from the I-other-relating strategies and actions under consideration, (5) adjust understanding about one’s situatedness based on the feedback from the others, (6) adjust self-presenting and I-other-relating strategies and actions based on the feedback from the others, (7) negotiate among selves and deal with conflicts among them, (8) cut off the habitual connection with negative past experience, (9) terminate the familiar old personal drama, (10) initiate unfamiliar new personal drama, (11) establish the connection of past-present-future via appreciating the past, savoring the present, anticipate the future. The projecting helps to direct one’s personal drama toward avoiding personal losses, protecting one’s self-esteem and face, extending positive emotional experience, avoiding hurting others, avoiding disappointing others, taking care of others’ needs, and establish mutual-accepted I-otherrelating strategies and actions.

Suggestions about research framework and methodology for future research are provided based on various pairs of co-constitution from existential phenomenology, such as I-others, situatedness-projecting, praxismeaning, settling-down-on-the-earth and pursuing-meaning-echoing-the-way-of-heaven, as well as self-culture.

 

起訖頁 001-026
關鍵詞 在世存有存在現象學自我處境結構認同Be-in-the-worldexistential phenomenologyidentificationselfsituational structure
刊名 中華輔導與諮商學報  
期數 201905 (55期)
出版單位 台灣輔導與諮商學會
該期刊-下一篇 青少年自我認同與自尊:認同重要性與認同確定性之功能
 

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