Because the curriculum guidelines of 12-year compulsory education consider competency to be its core philosophy, the guidelines drafted for the arts curriculum thus include key learning points and the development of core competencies. However, in addition to these guidelines, changes to the practice and requirements of arts teacher training programs in accordance with this shift in policy require investigation. Through a literature review, this study offers a discussion of the trend of academic development in secondary school teacher training programs. In addition to collecting syllabi for “fine arts/visual arts teaching materials and methods” from teacher training institutes, the researcher conducted individual interviews with instructors of these courses. Through interviews and an analysis of document contents, the data were conceptualized and categorized to cross-verify and investigate the status quo and practice of the “teaching materials and methods” curriculum in teacher training programs. The research results indicated discrepancies in preservice teacher entry behavior, number of teaching hours, and anxiety related to participating in screening tests, and that these factors had the most significant effect on teaching competence and lesson plan design. Significant variance was observed among teacher responses to learning contents, including inadequate understanding of curriculum guidelines, insufficient appreciation for teaching arts, and ineffective interdisciplinary teaching. Therefore, how arts teaching materials and methods are practiced during the implementation of 12-year compulsory education curriculum guidelines requires further investigation. Suggestions are also provided in this study based on the research results.