Objective: To explore the distribution of common diseases and prescriptions under National Health Insurance (NHI) at the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) department in the correctional organization. Methods: We employed the complete datasets of Chinese herbal remedies in 2014-2015 from the TCM outpatient reimbursement claims in the correctional organization to analyze characteristics of TCM users, the disease categories, and the pattern of prescriptions. Results: Among 2014 and 2015, 930 subjects had used TCM in the correctional organization with a total of 2,982 visits. The age distribution displayed a peak at around the 30s (46%), followed by the 20s (26%) and 40s (23%). The top major diseases for TCM visits were diseases of specific disorders of sleep of nonorganic origin, contact dermatitis and other eczema, unspecified hemorrhoids with other complication, fasciitis, allergic rhinitis, lumbago, osteoarthrosis, localized, other acne, unspecified functional disorder of intestine, functional digestive disorders not elsewhere classified. The top three major disease categories for TCM visits were diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, mental disorders, skin and subcutaneous tissue. The most frequently used three individual traditional Chinese medications are Cortex Magnoliae, Kochia Scoparia and Corydalis Rhizoma. The most frequently used three traditional Chinese medicine formulas are Long-Dan Sie-Gan-Tang, Shu-Jing-Huo-Sie-Tang and Shao-Yao-Gan-Cao-Tang. Conclusions: This study shows the most common diseases encountered in traditional Chinese medical practice and the most common prescriptions in the correctional organization. It would be served as a reference and enable information-sharing to traditional Chinese Medicine doctors.