The first Chinese grammar composed by a native author is Mǎshì Wéntōng, which was published by Mǎ Jiànzhōng in 1898. Until then, Chinese tradition had developed studies of rhetoric Xiū Cí Xué修辭學and exegesis Xùn Gǔ Xué 訓詁學 as priority disciplines of education and language teaching. In Mǎ’s work two types of sources are identified: the Chinese linguistic tradition on the one hand, on the other hand, Western models of analysis of the European languages. In this work, those studies that could influence the Grammar of Mǎ are taken into consideration. We review previous studies of the Chinese language and compare the grammatical terminology of Mǎshì Wéntōng with the European generalized Grammar of Port -Royal (1660). This work will show that in the grammatical system of Mǎ, some characteristics of the traditional study of the Chinese language come together with other characteristics of Western linguistics.