Chinese herbs are traditional diet for postpartum women in many countries. However, the potential impact of maternal consumption with Chinese herb-enriched diet on nursing infants has not been well investigated. Our objective was to identify the association between health of breastfed infants and maternal diet with Chinese herbs. A total of 420 infants with exclusively breastfeeding at 25 to 45 days of age were enrolled into this prospective study. There was a decline of jaundice in infants of maternal diet with modified Si-wu-tang when compared to those without modified Si-wu-tang (p < 0.001). In addition, infants of maternal diet with sesame oil chicken more often defecated (p = 0.004). A combination of maternal consumption with modified Si-wu-tang, Sheng-hau-tang, Eucommia ulmoides, and sesame oil chicken was related to a decline of jaundice (p < 0.001) and an increase of stool passage (p = 0.039). There was no significant correlation of maternal diet with infant growth. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated greater risk of frequent stooling at maternal diet with sesame oil chicken and lower risk of jaundice at maternal diet with modified Si-wu-tang. In conclusion, there is a relationship between maternal consumption with Chinese herb-enriched diet and infant health at age of one month. The results suggest maternal intake with Chinese herb-enriched diet is safe for nursing infants. Maternal diet with modified Si-wu-tang may serve as an alternative strategy to prevent breast milk jaundice.