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篇名
美國專利域外效力──兼論其對專利涉外民事案件審理之影響
並列篇名
The U.S. Patent Extraterritoriality and Its Influence to Related Cases from the Perspectives of International Private Law
作者 謝祖松
中文摘要
美國專利法第271(a)條明文專利權為一屬地權,遵守其案例法建立之「域外效力推定不成立」原則。但科技日新月異、國際貿易盛行,衍生許多待解決問題,美國專利法例外擴張專利域外效力。例如,制定專利法第271(f)條以解決境外組裝問題,制定第271(g)條以解決境外製造問題,制定第105條以解決外太空活動問題,制定第271(b)條以解決境外誘引侵權問題。
此外,案例法如AT&T案解釋方法專利在第271(f)條「元件」及「提供」之適用範圍;Decca案建立「涉入原則」;RIM Ⅱ案提供對物及方法專利在境外設施之侵權實務見解;Wing Shing案之擴張見解,有助第271(b)條解決境外誘引侵權問題。值得注意,該等案件均討論方法專利,可見方法專利有使域外效力議題細緻化的能量。
在專利涉外案件上,域外效力得擴大國際管轄權,並得以本國法為準據法,連帶使判決之境外執行更具操作性,對權利人有周延且多元之保護。至於,案件之承認與執行,尚須視是否有區域性整合規範,例如布魯塞爾公約等,否則即便有專利域外效力之本國判決,尚無法完全執行。
我國法制對專利域外效力之規範,顯有法律漏洞,為周延保護中華民國專利,建議:(一)參考美國專利法第271(a)條、第271(b)條、第271(f)條、第271(g)條、第105條,增修我國專利法相關條文;及(二)參照參考ALI之規範原則第301條及第302條,修正我國涉外法第42條,以確立特定專屬管轄權,及權利成立地法適用時機,並明定準用規定,應有助於我國涉外專利民事案件之審理。
英文摘要
The case law in the United States had established the “presump-tion against extraterritoriality” doctrine, while the statutory law had enacted the sections of 271(b), (f), (g), and 105 of the US Patent Act to exceptionally provide the “extraterritorial doctrine”, such that it would be able to regulate situations such as partial manufacturing within the United States and overseas assembly thereof to avoid the all-elements rule, importing of overseas-manufactured products made by method patents, infringing by extended instrumentalities or over-seas activities located in non-sovereign areas including outer spaces, or overseas aiding and abetting acts contributed to an inducement. 
Issues relating to international private law regarding extraterritori-ality include the classification of exclusive jurisdiction to patents due to its necessity of being registered to the state, which distinguishes a patent from other forms of intellectual properties such as copyrights. The classification is conducted based on the considerations of factors of comity, doctrine of state action, and the nature of validity thereof. 
The author argues that various sections of the Patent Act shall be amended to essentially contain mechanisms established at the sections of 271(a), (b), (f), (g), and 105 of the US Patent Act. And, the section 42 of the Law Governing the Application of Laws to Civil Matters In-volving Foreign Elements shall be amended as well to essentially con-tain mechanisms established at the section 301 of ALI regulation to issues of the existence, validity, duration, attributes, and infringement of intellectual property rights and the remedies for their infringement, and determine the applicable laws to be: (a) for registered rights, the law of each State of registration. (b) for other intellectual property rights, the law of each State for which protection is sought.
起訖頁 189-281
關鍵詞 專利法屬地主義域外效力境外組裝境外製造誘引侵權方法專利外太空國際私法權利應受保護地Patent ActTerritorial DoctrineExtraterritorialityOverseas AssemblyOverseas ManufacturingAiding and AbettingMethod PatentInternational Private LawOuter SpaceLaw of State Where Protection is Sought
刊名 興大法學  
期數 201505 (17期)
出版單位 國立中興大學財經法律學系、科技法律研究所
DOI 10.3966/199516202015050017005  複製DOI
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該期刊-上一篇 從TRIPS協定談專利法第99條之解釋
 

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