Surgical resection and local treatments, including percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency thermal ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization are the main modality treatments for loco-regionally controlling disease progression and increasing survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because charged particle therapy (CPT), including proton beam radiotherapy and carbon ion radiotherapy, allows effective radiation doses to hepatic tumors but simultaneously spares the normal liver parenchyma and adjacent gastrointestinal tract from radiation, CPT has become an alternative strategy for locally treating HCC. We briefly reviewed various radiation dosages (from conventional courses to hypofractionated short-courses), the efficacy, the safety, and the clinical outcomes of HCC patients who received CPT. We found that CPT provides a better local control rate, ranging from 80% to 96%, a 2-year progression-free survival around 40%, and a 3-year overall survival ranging from 50% to 75%. Furthermore, CPT results in rare grade 3 toxicities of the late gastrointestinal tract adverse effects and radiation-induced liver disease. For central tumors of HCC, conventional CPT is preferred because it rarely causes late toxicities of the biliary and gastrointestinal tracts, whereas hypofractionated short-course CPT might provide better local control for larger-sized tumors that are located at peripheral areas of liver.