This article examined how the Nationalist government and Taiwanese people faced the invasion of American mass consumption culture while accepting US aid during the early Cold War period in the light of the government ban on Coca-Cola, which reflected the conflict, anxiety, and adaptation of post-war Taiwan undergoing Americanized modernization. Coca-Cola, a world-popular representative American product of the 20th century, has strong mass consumption culture characteristics. In response to the demand of American diplomats and military personnel in Taiwan, the Nationalist government had allowed Taiwanese trade companies to import Coca-Cola since 1951. With increasing number of Americans stationed in Taiwan, the government eventually established a joint-venture soda factory in 1957 for local production of Coca-Cola. In fact, the import of Coca-Cola was banned in 1952 because of insufficient foreign exchange for trade payment, the urge to protect domestic beverage industry, the launch of wartime New Life Movement, and the historical experience of economic chaos in Shanghai in the late 1940s. Nevertheless, the effect of such ban was short-lived; and people including high-ranking government officials were able to obtain and consume bootleg Coca-Cola through privileged or black-market access. At the same time, many others drank beverages similar to Coca-Cola, which stimulated even stronger interest in Coca-Cola among the public. As a result, the ban gradually became ineffective. Under the lobby and pressure from the Coca-Cola Company, the government eventually allowed again the import of Coca-Cola in 1967. The case of Coca-Cola in Taiwan indicated that under the invasion of American mass consumption culture, although the ban did delay the progress of Americanized modernization, Taiwan, as a member of the anti-Communist league and with people admiring and adopting American lifestyle, ultimately succumbed to Americanization. The prior experience of Shanghai played an important role in influencing the resistance and acceptance of Americanization in Taiwan.