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篇名
美國的滋味:冷戰前期臺灣的可口可樂禁令與消費(1950-1967)
並列篇名
Taste of USA: Prohibition and Consumption of Coca-Cola in Taiwan (1950-1967)
作者 曾品滄
中文摘要
本文以冷戰前期國民黨政府對於可口可樂的禁令,以及此禁令下所創造的特殊消費經驗為案例,檢視國民黨政府、臺灣民眾在接受美國援助的同時,如何面對美國大眾消費文化的進襲,並藉此反映戰後臺灣在以美國化為主要基調之現代化進程中的矛盾、焦慮與調適。可口可樂作為二十世紀風行世界的美國代表性商品,具有強烈的大眾消費文化特徵。自1951年起,因美國駐臺外交、軍事人員的需求,國民黨政府准許臺灣貿易公司代理可口可樂進口業務,1957年更因駐臺人員增多而在臺灣設立中美汽水廠,生產可口可樂。然而,基於臺灣外匯嚴重不足、保護國內飲料工業、推行戰時生活運動,以及1940年代末期上海經濟混亂的歷史經驗,國民黨政府也同時自1951年起禁止可口可樂進入國內市場。雖然禁令確實有其短暫政策效果,但包括最高領導階層在內的部分人士,以特權、黑市等非正式方法取得並消費可口可樂,更多的人則是飲用仿冒可口可樂的飲品,益發增長民眾對於可口可樂的興趣,終使得政府的禁令逐漸失效,並在可口可樂公司的遊說、施壓下,於1967年開放可口可樂進入本地市場。可口可樂的案例顯示,冷戰期間臺灣在面對美國大眾消費文化的進襲下,國民黨政府的禁令,雖延遲了以美國化為基調之現代化的進程,但作為反共產國家陣營的一員,民眾對於美國式生活的憧憬與模仿,終使臺灣捲入大眾消費文化浪潮之中。值得注意的是,無論是抵抗或接受美國化,昔日上海的經驗皆發揮了重要的作用。
英文摘要
This article examined how the Nationalist government and Taiwanese people faced the invasion of American mass consumption culture while accepting US aid during the early Cold War period in the light of the government ban on Coca-Cola, which reflected the conflict, anxiety, and adaptation of post-war Taiwan undergoing Americanized modernization. Coca-Cola, a world-popular representative American product of the 20th century, has strong mass consumption culture characteristics. In response to the demand of American diplomats and military personnel in Taiwan, the Nationalist government had allowed Taiwanese trade companies to import Coca-Cola since 1951. With increasing number of Americans stationed in Taiwan, the government eventually established a joint-venture soda factory in 1957 for local production of Coca-Cola. In fact, the import of Coca-Cola was banned in 1952 because of insufficient foreign exchange for trade payment, the urge to protect domestic beverage industry, the launch of wartime New Life Movement, and the historical experience of economic chaos in Shanghai in the late 1940s. Nevertheless, the effect of such ban was short-lived; and people including high-ranking government officials were able to obtain and consume bootleg Coca-Cola through privileged or black-market access. At the same time, many others drank beverages similar to Coca-Cola, which stimulated even stronger interest in Coca-Cola among the public. As a result, the ban gradually became ineffective. Under the lobby and pressure from the Coca-Cola Company, the government eventually allowed again the import of Coca-Cola in 1967. The case of Coca-Cola in Taiwan indicated that under the invasion of American mass consumption culture, although the ban did delay the progress of Americanized modernization, Taiwan, as a member of the anti-Communist league and with people admiring and adopting American lifestyle, ultimately succumbed to Americanization. The prior experience of Shanghai played an important role in influencing the resistance and acceptance of Americanization in Taiwan.
起訖頁 113-150
關鍵詞 可口可樂冷戰文化冷戰大眾消費主義美國化Coca-ColaCold WarThe Culture Cold WarMass ConsumerismAmericanization
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 201906 (26:2期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-上一篇 從「本島森林的主人翁」到「在自己的土地上流浪」:臺灣森林計畫事業區分調查的再思考(1925-1935)
該期刊-下一篇 2016-2017年臺灣經濟史研究的回顧與展望
 

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