Objectives: To analyze the relationship between the work burden and burnout of nursing staff in public health centers to propose suggestions for improving their health and welfare. Methods: An online survey of nursing staff in public health centers was conducted by contacting the said staff through email. The survey was conducted from July 25 to August 13, 2019. The authors sent out 3,742 emails and received 1,215 responses (response rate: 32.5%). After survey samples from Taipei and non-nursing staff were excluded, the sample size was 751. Results: Regarding the work demands dimension, work burden and red tape were positively correlated with work burnout and client burnout; weekly working hours were positively correlated with work burnout. In the work resources dimension, organizational support relieved work burnout, while client support alleviated client burnout. Although public service motivation (PSM) was negatively correlated with work and client burnout, it exacerbated the relationships of work burnout with work burden and red tape when it was analyzed as a moderator. Conclusions: The authors suggest that policy makers should reduce the workload, red tape, and over time working hours of nursing staff in public health centers. PSM could be an impetus for increasing work engagement and thus alleviate work burnout. However, it could also exacerbate the work burnout of the nursing staff due to increased work engagement in scenarios of a heavy workload and red tape.