Background: The ideology of recovery addresses the autonomy of patients with mental illness and their ability to reconstruct a normal life. Empirical knowledge of this process of recovery and related factors remains unclear. Purpose: To assess the process of recovery and related factors in patients with mental illness. Methods: This cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted on a convenience sample in a psychiatric hospital. Two-hundred and fifty patients with mental illness were recruited and were assessed using 3 instruments: Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR), Perceived Psychiatric Stigma Scale (PPSS), and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2 , analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Most of the participants were male, middle-aged, unmarried, educated to the senior high school level, employed, receiving home-care treatment, and diagnosed with schizophrenia. Those who were unemployed, living in a community rehabilitative house, and living in the community, respectively, earned relatively higher recovery scores (p < .05). The total scores of QPR and the 3 subscales were negatively correlated with PPSS (p < .01) and positively correlated with PSPS (p < .01; p < .05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors of education, employment, having received community rehabilitative models, and stigma, respectively, significantly explained the recovery capacity of patients with mental illness. Conclusion: Community psychiatric nurses should provide care to help employed patients adapt to stresses in the workplace, strengthen their stigma-coping strategies, and promote public awareness of mental health issues by increasing public knowledge and acceptance of mental illness in order to minimize patient-perceived stigma and facilitate their recovery.