The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a newly implemented quality improvement team on activities in a hospital operating room with respect to the age, education level, marriage status and previous experience of members of the nursing team. From two Taipei municipal teaching hospitals, 18 registered nurses at one hospital made up the experimental group and 20 at the other made up the control group. We used work satisfaction, organizational commitment, and team performance as evaluation criteria. The comparison of effectiveness was evaluated statistically using linear regression and generalized estimating equation analyses. The results showed that organizational commitment was significantly increased in the experimental group (p ＜ .05) but work satisfaction did not increase. The effectiveness of the quality improvement team in three areas was also evaluated. There was statistically significant improvement in the completeness of preparation of patients for surgery (p ＜ .001) and there was a shortening of turnover time (p ＜ .05), but patients' waiting time was not improved (p = .10). These results are encouraging and will be useful for internal education and applicable to other institutions as well. We recommend the implementing of such hospital quality improvement teams together with continuous performance evaluation.