The Philippines is a multiethnic country with diverse cultural characteristics, which are mainly represented in terms of ethno-linguistic and religious differences. The primary purpose of this paper aims to depict the Philippines’s ethnic composition as well as to analyze its major ethnic policies, including language policy and policy toward ethnic minorities. The major findings include: First, the Philippines’s ethnic cleavages were shaped by scattered geographical locations as well as colonial experiences. Second, the selection and reaffirmation of national language and official languages was the major issue of language politics in the 20th century, while the politics about mother tongue education has come on stage contemporarily. Third, the ethnic minority issues of the Philippines are regulated as a constitutional-level policy, which is primarily practiced in the establishment of autonomous regions and recognition of indigenous rights.