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篇名
差別影響歧視理論適用之爭議──以美國聯邦最高法院Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. The Inclusive Communities Project Inc.案為探討核心
並列篇名
Issues on the Practice of Disparate Impact Theory: Focusing on Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. The Inclusive Communities Project Inc. Case
作者 許炳華
中文摘要
美國在21世紀已經邁向地域移動彈性化及種族多元化,然矛盾的是,黑人貧民區仍被隔離而成為都會區之景觀,根據2010年之統計,儘管多元化全面提升,惟極端之黑白種族隔離仍舊存在,在這個背景下,聯邦最高法院在2015年6月25日作出Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. The Inclusive Communities Project Inc.案,使得公平住居之擁護者大大鬆了一口氣,該令人意想不到之判決對於民權運動者亦屬一大勝利,Inclusive Communities案絕非僅深刻影響數百萬美國人之住居選擇,更可能形塑其未來之社區結構,以五比四些微差距之多數意見認為基於公平住居法得以主張差別影響歧視理論,該理論對於公平住居之促進乃至關重要之工具,使得在對於損害少數族群之政府行為提起訴訟時,無須證明特定之歧視意圖,數十年來,差別影響歧視責任在美國成為確保憲法所承諾所有人平等之關鍵工具,許多法律及行政措施在表面上看起來中立,但實際上卻使特定族群受到不利益之影響,本文爬梳Inclusive Communities案之脈絡,將論述焦點放在依據公平住居法得否主張差別影響歧視、差別影響歧視理論與平等保護條款之關係,最後反思我國之司法及立法實務,期能提供探討以作為借鏡。
英文摘要
American in the twenty-first century has become increasingly geographically mobile and ethically diverse. Yet, paradoxically, black ghettos-spatially isolated that are predominantly black-remain central features of American metropolitan landscape. The results of the 2010 census indicate that, while diversity has increased overall, extreme black-white segregation persists. On June 25, 2015, the Supreme Court handed down its decision in Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. The Inclusive Communities Project Inc. case. And fair housing advocates breathed a sigh of relief. The unexpected ruling is a triumph for civil rights activists also. The decision in this case will not only profoundly impact the housing choices of millions of Americans of all backgrounds but it will also shape the fabric of the neighborhoods and communities. Disparate impact theory is a vital tool for fair housing advocates. It allows them to challenge institutional behaviors that harm minority groups, without having to go through the often impossible process of identifying explicitly discriminatory motives. For decades, disparate impact liability has been a critical tool in ensuring that the Constitution's promise of equality extends to all persons regardless of race. This article analyze Inclusive Communities case, put stress on that whether disparate-impact claims were cognizable under Fair Housing Act and the relations between disparate impact theory and equal protection clause. Hope to gain something for us to learn.
起訖頁 57-114
關鍵詞 差別影響歧視差別對待歧視間接歧視平等保護公平住居住居隔離嚴格審查標準Disparate ImpactDisparate TreatmentIndirect DiscriminationEqual ProtectionFair HousingSegregated HousingStrict Scrutiny
刊名 國立中正大學法學集刊  
期數 201701 (54期)
出版單位 國立中正大學法律學系
該期刊-上一篇 加盟契約中的資訊揭露
該期刊-下一篇 論我國企業併購法中規範之特別委員會制度
 

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