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篇名
論格式化免責條款的效力--兼評法釋[2009]5號第9~10條
並列篇名
On the Validity of Formatted Exception Clause-- Comments on the 9th~10th Article of Judicial Interpretations[2009] Document No. 5
作者 冉克平
中文摘要
當事人雙方在合同中事先約定的、旨在限制或免除其未來責任的免責條款,具有分配負擔與風險的積極價值。但是,免責條款的格式化,使濫用免責條款侵害相對人尤其是消費者的合法權益現象日趨嚴重。法律對免責條款的規範與控制,實質是為了協調與平衡合同自由原則與禁止免責條款濫用之間的矛盾與衝突。免責條款的效力基礎,源於法律對社會公共利益的維護與合同正義原則對合同自由原則的矯正。就免責條款的類型而言,包括免除侵權責任的格式條款、免除因故意或重大過失導致違約責任的格式條款以及免除對相對人不公平、不合理的格式條款,其效力基礎不同,因此效力規則亦應當採取不同的標準予以判斷。與先進國家或地區有關免責條款的效力規制相比,我國法釋[2009]5號第9~10條存在著不足之處,應當借鑒先進國家或地區以及國際條約相關立法與判例,進一步予以完善。
英文摘要
Exception Clause, which both parties previously appointed in the agreement aiming to limit or exempt from its future liability, has the positive value in distributing the burden and risk. However, the standard of Exception Clause makes the phenomenon worse because of abuse of Exception Clause to violate the counterpart’s legitimate right and interests, especially the consumer. The law regulates and controls Exception Clause and its essence is to coordinate and balance the contradiction and conflict between Contract Freedom Principal and prohibition of abuse of Exception Clause. Validity basis of Exception Clause stems from the law’s maintenance of social public interests and Contract Justice Principle’s Rectification towards Contract Freedom Principle. For the type of Exception Clause, it includes the standard clause of immunity from tort liability, the standard clause of immunity from breaching liability because of the intentional offense and gross negligence, and the standard clause of immunity from unfair and unreasonable terms toward the counterparts. Because of the difference of validity basis, then rule of effectiveness should be evaluated according to the different standard. Compared with developed countries and region’s rule of effectiveness about the Exception Clause, the 9th~10th article Judicial Interpretation [2009] Document No. 5 have the deficiency, and they should refer to the relevant legislation and cases of developed countries and regions and international treaty and needs to further improved.
起訖頁 61-77
關鍵詞 格式化免責條款效力社會公共利益合同自由合同公平StandardException ClauseEffectivenessSocial Public InterestsContract FreedomContract Justice
刊名 私法  
期數 201110 (18期)
出版單位 華中科技大學
該期刊-上一篇 論關係契約理論的困境
該期刊-下一篇 土地財產權
 

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