Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can trigger the mechanism of myocardial protection against prolonged ischemia/reperfusion injury. The IPC-related researches had been still ongoing to date. Moreover, IPC has been used to blunt the degree of ischemic exercise-induced apoptosis or improve exercise performance in human. Brief episodes of occlusion followed by reperfusion of human upper limbs or thighs for 3 to 4 cycles prior to exercise can mimic the efficacy of IPC, which increases cycling maximal power output and swimming velocity. However, the results of IPC in some physiological parameters such as maximal oxygen consumption are inconsistent. The precise mechanism of IPC improving exercise performance is still unclear now. It was speculated that IPC can activate some cellular signaling pathways to enhance sport performance via vasodilation, blood flow redistribution, and /or improvement in mitochondria function.