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篇名
影響成就動機的家庭社會化因素之探討
並列篇名
SOCIALIZATIONAL FACTORS OF INDIVIDUAL'S ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN FAMILY
作者 余安邦
中文摘要
以D. C. McClelland為首之西方學者所建構之成就動機的概念,可稱為個我取向成就動機。以往歐美的文獻資料大致指出:在家庭社會化的過程中,父母的獨立訓練與成就訓練是影響子女之(個我取向)成就動機的有利因素。然而,另有一種主要存在於傳統集體主義社會之成就動機,可稱為社會取向成就動機。影響社會取向成就動機的主要家庭社會化因素是什麼,至今尚不清楚。本研究的主要目的,即在於釐清各種父母訓練方式與子女之社會取向成就動機及個我取向成就動機之間可能的因果關係。同時,本研究亦想探討:父母之訓練方式與子女之成就動機之間的因果關係,是否會因子女性別之不同而有差異。最後,本研究也想瞭解:教育程度不同的父母,其各種訓練方式的強度及其子女之成就動機的強度是否有所差異。在以827位在校學生(含國中生、高中生及大學生)為對象的研究結果顯示:父母之訓練方式對子女之成就動機的影響,會因子女性別的不同而有差異。具體而言:(1)母親的成就訓練是有利於子女之社會取向成就動機及個我取向成就動機之養成的關鍵因素之一,但父親的成就訓練卻對子女之兩種成就動機不具影響力。前一結果支持本研究之預測,後一結果則未能支持我們的想法。(2)父親的依賴訓練對子女之社會取向成就動機有直接而正面的影響,但對其個我取向成就動機則有不利的作用(對女生而言),或不具實際的效果(對男生而言)。由此可見父親之依賴訓練對這兩種成就動機具有不同的影響力。這項結果符合了我們的預測。然而,母親的依賴訓練對子女之社會取向成就動機沒有影響。但它對男生之個我取向成就動機卻有明顯不利的影響,對女生之個我取向成就動機則不具任何效果。前者與本研究之預測不相吻合,後者則支持我們的想法。(3)父母的獨立訓練愈強,愈有助於子女之個我取向成就動機的發展(除母親之獨立訓練對男生之個我取向成就動機外)。但父母之獨立訓練對子女之社會取向成就動機則皆不具影響力。這個結果支持本研究的假設。此外,本研究結果亦發現:父母教育程度為小學以下、初高(職)中、專科或大學以上等不同程度的受試者之間,在社會取向成就動機、個我取向成就動機、及父母的依賴訓練程度等方面均無明顯的不同。然而,父母教育程度不同之各組受試者之間,父母之獨立訓練及成就訓練的程度則有明顯的差異存在。大致而言,教育程度愈高的父母,愈注重子女的獨立訓練與成就訓練;教育程度較低的父母則不然。最後,本文並討論成就動機之社會化理論可能的社會文化基礎及未來可能的研究方向。
英文摘要
The concept of achievement motivation constructed by most Western scholars--as leaded by D. C. McClelland--can be called individual-oriented achievement motivation. Much of the previous literature indicates that parents' independent training and achievement training are two critical facilitating factors in the development of (individual-oriented) achievement motivation. Whereas, there is another type of achievement motivation that exists mainly in traditional collectivistic societies, which can be called social-oriented achievement motivation. One of the purposes of this study is to identify the relationship between parents' training methods and children's achievement motivation. Meanwhile, this study tries to examine whether or not gender factors influence the relationship between parents' training methods and achievement motivation. Finally, this study will explore the role of parents' educational level in the socializational process of achievement motivation. After using 827 student subjects, the results of this study show: (1) Mother's achievement training is a crucial factor to the development of social-oriented and individual-oriented achievement motivation, but father's achievement training has no direct effect on these two achievement motivations. (2) Father's dependent training has a directly positive effect on children's social-oriented achievement motivation; but it has negative effect on girls' individual-oriented achievement motivation, and has no effect on that of boys. Whereas the mother's dependent training has no effect on children's social-oriented achievement motivation, it has an obviously derogatory effect on the individual-oriented achievement motivation of boys, but has no effect on that of girls. (3) The stronger the parents' dependent training, the more developed is the children's individual-oriented achievement motivation. In addition, after comparing four groups of subjects whose parents' educational level differed, results reveal that there is no significant difference in the strength of social-oriented achievement motivation, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and parents' dependent training. Nevertheless, the higher the degree of parents' educational level, the stronger are the parents' independent training and achievement training. Finally, a tentative socio-cultural origin of achievement motivation and some perspectives for future research are also discussed.
起訖頁 87-132
刊名 中央研究院民族學研究所集刊  
期數 199109 (71期)
出版單位 中央研究院民族學研究所
該期刊-上一篇 從爾雅釋親看我國古代親屬體系的演變
該期刊-下一篇 社會文化因素與輕型精神症狀--泰雅和阿美兩族的比較研究
 

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