The concept of achievement motivation constructed by most Western scholars－－as leaded by D. C. McClelland－－can be called individual-oriented achievement motivation. Much of the previous literature indicates that parents' independent training and achievement training are two critical facilitating factors in the development of (individual-oriented) achievement motivation. Whereas, there is another type of achievement motivation that exists mainly in traditional collectivistic societies, which can be called social-oriented achievement motivation. One of the purposes of this study is to identify the relationship between parents' training methods and children's achievement motivation. Meanwhile, this study tries to examine whether or not gender factors influence the relationship between parents' training methods and achievement motivation. Finally, this study will explore the role of parents' educational level in the socializational process of achievement motivation. After using 827 student subjects, the results of this study show: (1) Mother's achievement training is a crucial factor to the development of social-oriented and individual-oriented achievement motivation, but father's achievement training has no direct effect on these two achievement motivations. (2) Father's dependent training has a directly positive effect on children's social-oriented achievement motivation; but it has negative effect on girls' individual-oriented achievement motivation, and has no effect on that of boys. Whereas the mother's dependent training has no effect on children's social-oriented achievement motivation, it has an obviously derogatory effect on the individual-oriented achievement motivation of boys, but has no effect on that of girls. (3) The stronger the parents' dependent training, the more developed is the children's individual-oriented achievement motivation. In addition, after comparing four groups of subjects whose parents' educational level differed, results reveal that there is no significant difference in the strength of social-oriented achievement motivation, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and parents' dependent training. Nevertheless, the higher the degree of parents' educational level, the stronger are the parents' independent training and achievement training. Finally, a tentative socio-cultural origin of achievement motivation and some perspectives for future research are also discussed.