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篇名
Oriental Enlightenment: The Problematic Military Experiences and Cultural Claims of Count Maurice Auguste Comte de Benyowsky in Formosa during 1771
並列篇名
東方式的啟蒙:1771年貝尼奧斯基在福爾摩沙島的軍事經驗與文化主張之省思
作者 伊恩.英克斯特
中文摘要
Maurice Benyowsky's colourful version of his global adventures during the heady, expansive days of the late-Enlightenment remains still as an historical account, and is perhaps destined for reification at a time of romantic, postmodernist cultural affirmation. Yet this paper argues that within it there lies a virile and possibly dangerous Orientalism, one at least partially based upon a lurid, opportunistic and self-seeking fabrication of his visit to Taiwan (Formosa) in the year 1771. This paper examines the veracity, provenance and historiography of the Benyowsky account of late-eighteenth century Formosa, both as an exercise in one facet of Taiwanese history and as some exploration of the origin and maintenance of European views of the 'other' and of the 'orient' as they were transforming during the late-Enlightenment period. Furthermore a principal task is to provide an historiographical analysis that illustrates both the initial reasons for the acceptance of Benyowsky's lurid account as well as the wider contexts of its long life as a seemingly reliable and authentic tale. Questions remain as to the cultural contexts of any general acceptance of otherwise doubtful stories, experiments, claims and 'adventures'. Here there is little doubt that the original Memoirs were given greater credence by Benyowsky's talent in selffashioning his character and status as those of a reliable gentleman.
英文摘要
貝尼奧斯基的傳記真可以說是惡名遠播,然而包括他1771年到臺灣遊歷的敘述在內,至今許多歷史學家仍然持續地沿用。本文蒐集自1771年至今,關於貝尼奧斯基的各種相關出版,以嚴格而批判的角度檢視他對臺灣的種種主張與說法,並試圖發展出一個較完整的論述。藉由各種文獻的比對,本文得以評量貝尼奧斯基論著的可靠性,並且說明何以他的著作在各地得以產生如此巨大的影響力。本文同時檢視貝尼奧斯基的說法如何被西方和日本學者所使用,試圖建構一個關於中國的「東方主義」(薩伊德)論述,而把中國文化形塑為一個較日本文化低劣的「他者」。本文主張,貝尼奧斯基的作品其實是歐洲啟蒙運動晚期,特別是在法國和英國的一個代表性著作。其之所以廣受歡迎的原因,在於它描繪了一個優越而強大的西方文明,透過歐洲人在十八世紀藉由航海、貿易與殖民,在亞洲和其他地方行使強大的文化權威的歷程。
起訖頁 27-70
關鍵詞 貝尼奧斯基原住民啟蒙運動東方主義文明衝突旅遊文學BenyowskyHistoriographyAboriginesEnlightenmentOrientalismClash of civilizationsTravel literatureVoyages
刊名 臺灣史研究  
期數 201003 (17:1期)
出版單位 中央研究院臺灣史研究所
該期刊-上一篇 荷蘭東印度公司治下的臺灣原住民部落整併
該期刊-下一篇 臺灣米價變動與「臺運」變遷之關聯(1783-1850)
 

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