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篇名
何謂「社會現象」?
並列篇名
What is ‘Social Phenomenon’ ?
作者 蔡錦昌
中文摘要
「現象」乃是一種特殊的知覺性事物,是相應於觀點性的知覺形式而顯現的,因而也是那些具有自我意識的現代都市人身上才有的知覺形式。由於它是相應於觀察者的觀點和角度而顯現出來的意識圖象,因此它通常亦以概念的方式被表達和確立。   「現象」概念有兩種主要的用法:一是一般現代都市人的用法,一是科學研究者的用法。「社會現象」概念亦然。作為社會學專門研究對象的「社會現象」,跟一般人的用法不同。社會學的「社會現象」所相應的乃是社會學的觀點。換句話說,必須經過社會學研究者加工處理,把一般人的觀點轉化為社會學的觀點,才算是「社會現象」。   社會學觀點就是從「社會條件之關係結構」的角度看事情的方式。所強調的是;一、受社會條件所制約;二、以關係結構的方式呈現。   「社會現象」並不只是社會學研究的起點,而且同時是力動性和歷程性的社會學研究活動的終點。雖然研究活動開始時重在確定研究對象而後來重在說明此對象,但其實整個過程都在形構對象和不斷修正此初步的形構結果。好現象必好說明;好說明的必然是好現象。因此可以說,「社會現象」既是起點,也是終點。   因社會學研究者所抱持知識興趣之不同,「社會現象」的形構方式亦有不同的變異形態。以社會學歷來主要的學派傳統而言,可大分為馬克思式、涂爾幹式、韋伯式三種,各有其不同的研究旨趣和論述焦點。‘Phenomenon’ is a special kind of perceptional thing. It is relative to the viewpoint that it refers, and generally is represented by and sediments as a concept. Therefore it belongs to that kind of perceptional form of those living in modern cities. There are two uses of the concept ‘phenomenon’: the usual usage by the ordinary city people and the special usage by scientists. The same is the concept of ‘social phenomenon.’ As a special subject matter of sociology, its usage is different from that of those ordinary people. In sociology ‘social phenomenon’ is relative to a ‘sociological viewpoint.’ It becomes a ‘social phenomenon’ whenever the relevant viewpoint is transformed from that of ordinary people to that of sociologists. In short, it has to be remade. A ‘sociological viewpoint,’ or a ‘sociological perspective,’ is a special way of seeing from the perspective of ‘the relational structure of social conditions.’ Its interrelational components are ‘social conditions’ and‘ as relational structure.’‘Social phenomenon’ is not only the starting point of a sociological research process, it is also the dynamic and process part of object within. Although it is doubtless what matters in the initial phase of research and not so after that, it is in fact an object formed from the beginning and modified continually in the whole research process. Good phenomenon can be well explained; what can be well explained must be a good phenomenon. ‘Social phenomenon’ is thus both a starting and an ending point of sociological research.Since different sociologists have different intellectual interests and so different sociological perspectives, ‘social phenomenon’ has different versions. In the tradition of sociology there are three main types of ‘social phenomenon,’ which can be classified roughly as Marxian, Durkeimian, and Weberian, each has it own special intellectual focus.
起訖頁 131-154
關鍵詞 現象社會現象社會學觀點社會現象類型學術概念
刊名 東吳社會學報  
期數 200412 (17期)
出版單位 東吳大學
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該期刊-下一篇 評介Michael Gibbons等人的科學與技術研究著作:《新的知識生產方式》
 

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