因社會學研究者所抱持知識興趣之不同，「社會現象」的形構方式亦有不同的變異形態。以社會學歷來主要的學派傳統而言，可大分為馬克思式、涂爾幹式、韋伯式三種，各有其不同的研究旨趣和論述焦點。‘Phenomenon’ is a special kind of perceptional thing. It is relative to the viewpoint that it refers, and generally is represented by and sediments as a concept. Therefore it belongs to that kind of perceptional form of those living in modern cities.
There are two uses of the concept ‘phenomenon’: the usual usage by the ordinary city people and the special usage by scientists. The same is the concept of ‘social phenomenon.’ As a special subject matter of sociology, its usage is different from that of those ordinary people. In sociology ‘social phenomenon’ is relative to a ‘sociological viewpoint.’ It becomes a ‘social phenomenon’ whenever the relevant viewpoint is transformed from that of ordinary people to that of sociologists. In short, it has to be remade.
A ‘sociological viewpoint,’ or a ‘sociological perspective,’ is a special way of seeing from the perspective of ‘the relational structure of social conditions.’ Its interrelational components are ‘social conditions’ and‘ as relational structure.’‘Social phenomenon’ is not only the starting point of a sociological research process, it is also the dynamic and process part of object within. Although it is doubtless what matters in the initial phase of research and not so after that, it is in fact an object formed from the beginning and modified continually in the whole research process. Good phenomenon can be well explained; what can be well explained must be a good phenomenon. ‘Social phenomenon’ is thus both a starting and an ending point of sociological research.Since different sociologists have different intellectual interests and so different sociological perspectives, ‘social phenomenon’ has different versions. In the tradition of sociology there are three main types of ‘social phenomenon,’ which can be classified roughly as Marxian, Durkeimian, and Weberian, each has it own special intellectual focus.