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篇名
從北大醫簡「一沺一傅」談簡帛醫藥文獻所見「洒」與「傅」
並列篇名
A Study of Tian (沺) and Fu (傅) Based on Yisa Yifu (一沺一傅) in Medical Scripts of the Beijing University Collection
作者 鄧佩玲
中文摘要
北京大學於2009 年入藏一批西漢竹簡,當中醫簡711 枚,內容大致分為「醫方目錄」、「醫方甲」、「醫方乙」和「醫經」四類,相關資料可參見李家浩、楊澤生〈北京大學藏漢代醫簡簡介〉一文(《文物》2011 年6 期)。根據整理者公佈之圖版可知,北大簡第2870 簡記有古醫方「秦氏方」,簡文云:「一沺一傅,它惡傷亦可。  • 秦氏方。」「秦氏」之名亦見《史記• 扁鵲列傳》:「扁鵲者……,姓秦氏,名越人。」因此,過去嘗有學者認為「秦氏」有可能是戰國時期之神醫扁鵲。
「一沺一傅」,「沺」於經傳中鮮見,疑應「洒」之誤,具「洗」義。「傅」則屢見於簡帛醫藥文獻中,有「塗抹」之意。在馬王堆漢墓醫書中,「洒」及「傅」二詞經常相連出現, 例如〈五十二病方• 白處方〉云:「二日,洒,以新布孰暨(摡)之,【復】傅。」又〈雎(疽) 病〉云:「日一【傅】樂(藥),【傅】樂(藥)前洒以溫水。」「洒」及「傅」應是古代常見之治療方法。本文擬先借助北大簡「秦氏方」中「一沺一傅」之記述,對「沺」與「洒」之關係作出釐清,然後再結合簡帛醫藥文獻中「洒」及「傅(敷)」之記載,期望能對兩者之性質及應用情況作更進一步之討論。
英文摘要
The Western Han bamboo manuscripts acquired by the Beijing University in 2009 comprise of 711 medical scripts with four categories, namely yifang mulu ( 醫方目錄), yifang jia ( 醫方甲), yifang yi ( 醫方乙) and yijing ( 醫經). Its reference materials could be found in “An introduction to the Han medical bamboo scripts of the Beijing University Collection” co-authored by Li Jiahao and Yang Zesheng published in Wenwu (《文物》) issue 6, 2011. According to the pictures provided by collators, bamboo script no. 2870 gives an account of the ancient medical prescription Qinshi Fang ( 秦氏方), stating that “ 一沺一傅,它惡傷亦可。 ‧ 秦氏方。”. As the name Qinshi could also be found in “Bianque Liezhuan” ( 扁鵲列傳) of Shiji(《史記》), scholars therefore considered Qinshi should probably be the ancient doctor Bianque of the Warring States Period.
The character tian( 沺) in yisa yifu( 一沺一傅) is rarely seen in ancient texts. This article thus suggested tian may be a miswrite of sa( 洒) with the meaning of “washing”, while fu, commonly found in bamboo and silk medical scripts, should mean “rubbing”. Jointly-used examples of sa and fu appeared in medical manuscripts of the Mawangdui Han Silk frequently, revealing that both sa and fu should be usual methods of treatment in ancient times. The objectives of this article were to clarify the relationship of the characters tian( 沺) and sa( 洒) in medical scripts from the Beijing University Collection, and then to conduct a detailed study on the nature and application of sa( 洒) and fu( 傅) by referring to related narrations in the excavated bamboo and silk medical documents.
起訖頁 095-110
關鍵詞 北大簡馬王堆漢墓帛書「洒」「傅」秦氏方
刊名 中醫藥雜誌  
期數 201312 (24:特刊1期)
出版單位 衛生福利部國家中醫藥研究所(原:國立中國醫藥研究所)
DOI 10.3966/101764462013122403007  複製DOI
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