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篇名
文學、歷史與回憶:阿亞拉的《記憶與遺忘》與齊邦媛的《巨流河》
並列篇名
Literature, History & Memory: Reminiscences and Overlooks de Francisco Ayala & Great-Flowing River de Pang-yuan Chi
作者 劉碧交
中文摘要
阿亞拉於1906年出生於格蘭那達,屬於西班牙二十世紀「二七年代」的作家。1925年即出版其第一本小說《沒有靈魂的男人的悲喜劇》(Tragicomedia de un hombre sin espíritu)。佛朗哥將軍領導的叛軍推翻第二共和政府後,阿亞拉即流亡阿根廷、巴西、波多黎、美國等國家。1960年首度返回西班牙,並重新投入文學創作,並於1976年定居馬德里,另在1983年被選為西班牙皇家院士。
阿亞拉於1982年出版其回憶錄第一集:〈從天堂到流放──記載作者童年到內戰結束的生活,1983年出版第二集:〈流亡〉──書寫他流亡的飄泊離散的心境。第三集:〈返鄉〉在1988年出版──除了繼續書寫他在美國重要大學教授西班牙文學的離散心境外,並著墨於從1960年起再次踏上故土的遊子心情,本集兼併一、二集文章。2006年出版的最終版《遺忘與記憶1906-2006》,集結前三集,並增添第四部份,記載西班牙民主時代的生活記事。
齊邦媛教授於1924年出生於遼寧鐵嶺。1947年大學畢業後,來台任教台灣大學外國語言文學系。1969年,創辦中興大學外文系,1977年,專任台灣大學外文系,講授英國文學史、高級英文、翻譯等課。曾至美國聖瑪麗學院、舊金山加州州立大學,及德國柏林自由大學講學。1988年自台灣大學外文系退休。著作有編選、翻譯、文學評論、散文等多種,致力引介英美文學到台灣,並將台灣文學英譯推介到西方世界。
齊教授於2009年出版歷經四年完成的自傳《巨流河》。本書記載其個人之一生,隨著滿腔熱血的父親在東北故鄉功敗垂成的一戰後,離開故鄉。之後因日本侵略中國,開始顛沛流離的生活。日本的投降並未讓她回到故鄉,因為共產黨占據中國,她又流亡到台灣。她個人縱貫百年、橫跨兩岸的故事,正是整個二十世紀中國所遭受顛沛流離的縮影。
由於兩部小說以自傳體的方式,記載其一生,卻也成為二十世紀中華民族與西班牙人民的生活縮影。因此,本研究計劃除了探討阿亞拉與齊邦媛如何以回憶的時間結構再現歷史,並分析兩部自傳作品如何以真實性與虛構性的寫作特色刻劃作者們的內心世界及尋回身份認同的議題。
英文摘要
Francisco Ayala who belonged to the Generation of 27 (la Generación del 27) is a novelist, sociologist and one of Spain's leading scholars. He was born in 1906 in Granada. After the Spanish Civil War, he exiled to America as many Spanish intellectuals. He returned to Spain in 1960 and rejoined literary life. In 1976, after the death of the General Franco, he had residence and lived in Madrid. In 1983 he was elected for the Real Academia Española.
In 1982, Ayala published the first part of his memoirs Reminiscences and Overlooks (Recuerdos y olvidos): “From the Paradise to the Desert” (“Del paraíso al destierro”) in which he mentioned his life from the childhood to the end of the Civil War. In 1983, he published the second part: “The Exile” (“El exilio”) that presents his mood of diaspora. In 1988, he printed, with the collection of the above two parts, the third part: “Return” (“Retornos”) in which he continued the presentation of his humor of diaspora and placed emphasis on his mood of returning to his native land. In 2006, he issued his final work in which he had recollected the three parts and had added the fourth part. In this part he wrote about his life in the democratic society of Spain.
The editor and author Pang-yuan Chi was born in 1924 in Liaoning province. In 1947, after finishing her university degree, she came to Taiwan to work for the Department of Foreign Literature of National Taiwan University (NTU). In 1969, she helped found the Chung Hsing University. Her literary works include anthology, translation, literary commentary, prose and so on. She has devoted her life to introducing the occidental literature to Taiwan and expanding the international presence of Taiwanese literature.
In 2009, she published her autobiography Great-flowing River that took her four years to finish. Chi describes that she left her hometown in Manchuria as a child during the Japanese invasion with her family and she came to Taiwan in 1947. Therefore, this book is also a biography about her family and its inmigrated from Liaoning province to Taiwan in the past century. Her memoir is a testimony of the past age.
According to the above-mentioned statement, it is found that in the past century the wars and the exile produced the traumatic reality that happened not only in Spain but also in China. These reasons let the writers like Ayala and Chi write about their past time that they had experienced; and let them realize the novelization of the autobiography in order to evoke the individual memory, familiar memory and the national memory to lay open the theme of the identity. Therefore, this study will analyze how both writers describe the discontinuity of the temporal structure of the memory to represent history, meanwhile, we also can make an analysis of the relation between the reality and the fiction in the autobiographic writing that appeared in the mentioned books.
起訖頁 083-104
關鍵詞 歷史 記憶 自傳體 阿亞拉 齊邦媛 History memory autobiography Francisco Ayala Pan-yuan Chi
刊名 語文與國際研究期刊  
期數 201312 (10期)
DOI 10.3966/181147172013120010005  複製DOI
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