Francisco Ayala who belonged to the Generation of 27 (la Generación del 27) is a novelist, sociologist and one of Spain's leading scholars. He was born in 1906 in Granada. After the Spanish Civil War, he exiled to America as many Spanish intellectuals. He returned to Spain in 1960 and rejoined literary life. In 1976, after the death of the General Franco, he had residence and lived in Madrid. In 1983 he was elected for the Real Academia Española.
In 1982, Ayala published the first part of his memoirs Reminiscences and Overlooks (Recuerdos y olvidos): “From the Paradise to the Desert” (“Del paraíso al destierro”) in which he mentioned his life from the childhood to the end of the Civil War. In 1983, he published the second part: “The Exile” (“El exilio”) that presents his mood of diaspora. In 1988, he printed, with the collection of the above two parts, the third part: “Return” (“Retornos”) in which he continued the presentation of his humor of diaspora and placed emphasis on his mood of returning to his native land. In 2006, he issued his final work in which he had recollected the three parts and had added the fourth part. In this part he wrote about his life in the democratic society of Spain.
The editor and author Pang-yuan Chi was born in 1924 in Liaoning province. In 1947, after finishing her university degree, she came to Taiwan to work for the Department of Foreign Literature of National Taiwan University (NTU). In 1969, she helped found the Chung Hsing University. Her literary works include anthology, translation, literary commentary, prose and so on. She has devoted her life to introducing the occidental literature to Taiwan and expanding the international presence of Taiwanese literature.
In 2009, she published her autobiography Great-flowing River that took her four years to finish. Chi describes that she left her hometown in Manchuria as a child during the Japanese invasion with her family and she came to Taiwan in 1947. Therefore, this book is also a biography about her family and its inmigrated from Liaoning province to Taiwan in the past century. Her memoir is a testimony of the past age.
According to the above-mentioned statement, it is found that in the past century the wars and the exile produced the traumatic reality that happened not only in Spain but also in China. These reasons let the writers like Ayala and Chi write about their past time that they had experienced; and let them realize the novelization of the autobiography in order to evoke the individual memory, familiar memory and the national memory to lay open the theme of the identity. Therefore, this study will analyze how both writers describe the discontinuity of the temporal structure of the memory to represent history, meanwhile, we also can make an analysis of the relation between the reality and the fiction in the autobiographic writing that appeared in the mentioned books.